Content Analysis steps 6-10
6. Define the units of analysis
o Units of analysis: specific type of content to be studied, whose presence or qualities can
o Should be clear from your research question
o Must collect the data you require
Name of text
Author or producer of text
Location. Date of production
Position of text within medium
Size or duration of text
Relevant data which will answer your question
E.g symbols, words, images, colors, topics
7. Create a code book
o Coding: process of converting complex qualitative data into generic does
o Code Book: guide to the codes used in a research program; defines how each unit of analysis will
be interpreted and coded
o Codes should facilitate counting, measurement and statistical analysis
8. The coding schedule
o A template with all units of analysis listed, and all possible variations also listed
o In many projects using content analysis you need one schedule for each text examined
9. Pilot the coding study
o Test your research plan on a limited sample of texts, this allows you to work out bugs:
Will medium and sample strategy produce data?
Is there an anomaly in the medium?
Do codes cover all significant possibilities?
Is coding difficult? Are more rules required?