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Communication Studies
Nick Baxter- Moore

Psychoanalysis  Starts with Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)  Argues that “the creation of civilization has resulted in the suppression of basic human instincts” (Storey, p.91)  As we become civilized we develop more and more codes which prevent us from behaving in an uncivilized manner.  Those basic human instincts revealed by Freud’s conception of three levels of the mind and his deconstruction of the elements of the psyche  Freud divides the minds into three levels. (iceberg) 1. Conscious Level: Thoughts and perceptions 2. Preconscious Level: Memories and Stored Knowledge 3. Unconscious Level: Fears, irrational wishes, shameful experiences, selfish needs, violent motives and unacceptable sexual desires. The Psyche  Three key elements: Id, Ego and Super Ego  Id is the Primitive self, the inner self, driven by basic instincts and passions (the pleasure principle)  The Ego is the social self which evolves to allow one to exist in society (the reality principle), in part by mediating between id and super ego  The Super-Ego is the conscience, the representative of authority Repression and Dreams  To allow us to function in society, ego often has to repress basic instincts of the id.  Basic instincts and drives surface in other ways-often in our dreams  Dreams are a “compromised structure” – a compromise between the demands of the id and the censorship by the ego (responding to the super-ego)  Dreams incorporate manifest (remembered) content and latent (repressed) content Freud and Sex  Dreams are full of symbols which may be read. Many of these may be interpreted as sexual in nature (caves, hollows, pockets, trees, spears…airships?)  Note: Freud warns against the outsider imposing meaning on these symbols (only the dreamer could do this) Oedipus Complex  Freud famous for the Oedipus complex, his theory of psychosexual development  Named after character in greek drama by Sophocles. Oedipus unknowlingly, first kills his father and then marries his mother. When he discovers what he has done, he blinds himself  Freud argued that all boys in an early development stage wishes to kill their father and have sexual desires about his mother’s until he matures and out grows those feelings.  Freud struggled over time to apply a similar model to the psychosexual development of girls (the Jocasta complex) but revised his thinking on a number of occasions. What does any of this have to do with Pop Culture?  Freudian psychoanalysis has been widely used as a method to understand texts by 1. “author-centered” approach, viewing the text as the authors dream’s (the author here may ne novelist, poet, film-maker, singer-songwriter, ect.)  Surface of the text (words, images etc.) is
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