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Lecture Jan 9.docx

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Daryl Dagesse

Physical Geography Part 2 Jan. 9, 2014 Scales • Very large – continent • Medium –river • Very small – tiny rocks Time Cycles • Many natural systems have a cyclic nature over time o Day and night o High and low tide o Seasons Stuff? • Matter (Earth materials, dirt & rocks) • Energy Types of Energy • Kinetic o Movement o E.g. mass wasting • Potential o Position o E.g. rocks on a slope • Thermal o Quantitively measured as temperature o Molecular kinetic energy The Lithosphere • Interior of the Earth • Internal processes • Crust o Movement o Composition • Landforms • Geomorphic processes Interior of the Earth • Largely unknown via direct observation • Information via seismic studies (basically sound waves) • Shock waves (basically like an ultrasound) o Man made o Natural • Upper portion divided into: o Lithosphere -> crust and top bit of the mantle (Fig. 12.1) o Asthenosphere • Upper crust can be divided into 2 layers: o Sial (continental crust) o Sima (oceanic crust) Sial • Upper of the two • Continental crust • Light in colour, granitic, less dense • Silica and aluminum Sima • Lower of the two • Oceanic crust • Young, dark, basaltic, dense • Silica and magnesium Elements in the Crust (Fig. 11.2)
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