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Lecture Jan 16.docx

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Daryl Dagesse

Jan. 16, 2014 Rock Transformation • Rocks have different chemistries • These different chemistries tell us how they were formed • PROCESSES Internal Processes • The crust is mobile from within • Leads to establishment of relief (hills and valleys) • Geomorphic processes act to reduce this relief • CONSTRUCTIVE forces, DESTRUCTIVE forces Remember… • Relief is height • Height is potential energy • Processes spontaneously run down an energy gradient • Moving from higher relief to lower relief Isostatic adjustment • Mountain, reduction in elevation due to weathering, etc., causes uplift Internal Process Continued • Very large scale • Idea of Continental Drift: o Original idea dates back to 1600s when someone noticed that the continents “fit together” o Geology fits together too (Fig. 12.26) o But it wasn’t known how the continents could move o Geo-forensics Continental Drift • The evidence: o Mid-oceanic ridges o Magnetic reversals o Increasing age of rocks away from the ridge lines o Deep oceanic trenches • The Wilson Cycle (Fig. 12.25) o J. Tuzo Wilson (1908-1993) o Fig. 13.9, Fig. 13.11, Fig. 12.8, Fig. 12.7 • Suggested a mechanism • Led to the theory of plate tectonics (Fig. 12.24, Fig. 12.9) Plate Tectonics • Plate boundaries: Fig. 12.22 o Divergent o
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