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Lecture 2

HIST 0N02 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Einhard, Rose Window, Fokker E.Ii

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Adonis Skandalis

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MARS 1F90 (Fall 2015)
Lecture 6: The Emergence of Medieval Identities (Muslim Spain and the Carolingians)
1. Muslim Spain
a. The Muslims arrive in Spain (711)A muslim force defeats the Visigoths
in Spain
b. Cordoba an amazing culture city of the time
c. Al-Andalus in the lberian Peninsula under muslim control
i. Andalusia today apart of Spain
ii. What did the Christians call Al-Andalus in the 8th century?
Moorish Spain - people who were not muslim and were christian
would refer to it as this.
iii.Why is the term “Moorish Spain” misleading? because there
were many christians and jews living there at the time
d. In what language did Muslims, Jews and Christians communicate?
communication in Arabic . Was one of the few multicultural parts of
e. What about intermarriage? happened very often
f. The two most pluralistic societies in medieval Europe were …? Al-
Andalus and Sicily under the Normans
g. The Jews in Cordoba: how were they treated? ,Muslims jews and
Christians in Al Andalusia between 8th and 12th centuries that jews were
treated well in this society.
h. Christians and the Muslim way of lifeIn cordoba these three great faiths
were able to live in peace. It came a place of knowledge for jewish and
Muslim learning.
i. Speech, dress, and diet - Christians learned to speak Arabic and
dressed like the Muslims . Christians who simulated with muslims
began to eat like them and did not includ pork
ii. Christian aristocratic women and the veil began to wear it in public
laws then began to come in aspects of veil wearing
iii.Interaction between Muslim and Christian youth : christians
began to adopt to muslim life styles because they were minority
group of the time
Mozarads : Christians who are virtually in all of muslim life style expect for their faith
j. What were assimilated Christians called in Al-Andalus?the splendour
of muslim culture in AL Andalusia
k. Which city in Al-Andalus was called “the ornament of the world” and
why? Cordoba as the Ornament of the world because it had modern
aspects like paved streets and well lighted streets. It contained the largest
library of Europe with 400,000 books.
l. Which other important city of Muslim Spain profoundly impacted the
Christian culture of western Europe? Toledo was another great city , a
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great centre of learning. While Europe was still suffering from the
Barbarian take over the Muslim cities like Toledo and Cordoba was the
city of knowledge. Arab knowledge of science and mathematics
m. What did Muslim scholars contribute to western science and
medicine?The Hindu system of numbers 1,2,3etc , the use of zero , arabic
or Hindu numerals , the translation of Greek and Persian scientific and
philosophical learning , brought to spain in the 12th and 13th century and
translated in Latin was used by Newton
n. Which Muslim invention greatly contributed to medieval learning?
the invention of paper and the application of writing on paper
o. Muslim medical knowledge : surpassed that of the West , Ibn Sina
(avicenna) was one of the greatest minds of the early Ages, he summarized
Greco-Arabic medical theories and wrote them in way that would be
assemble to europe scholars , Tuberculosis was discovered by him that it
was contagious
p. Muslim-Christian relations
i. The 8th and 9th centuries Muslim expansion in Europe
ii. The 13th century the attitude of western literature was appreciated
iii.General views of Muslims in Christian literature
iv. Muslim views of Christians Muslim historian and European
geography was not known that much. They were the ones who
traveled and made geography.
v. Muslim historians
vi. Why didn’t Muslims travel in the rest of Europe? Muslims
traveled elsewhere in europe for the geography and not for the
culture. They did not agree with the Christian ways of the way they
eat and etc. They were not provided with a prayer place or support
their muslim diets
vii. Muslims and territorial boundaries
Kings fought over boundaries not for religion purposes
1. Believers and non-believers muslims did not respect these
boundaries they saw it as some who believed and did
2. The Dar-al-Islam and the Dar-al-Harb no territorial
boundaries but with religion / those of great muslim pop
was the territory of believers The Dar-al-Islam and the non
believers of Dar-al-Harb which was most of Europe
3. Growing mutual distrust and fear
viii. The 10th century
ix. Christians as infidels
x. Restrictions on Mozarabs restricted to special sections of Muslim
cities , could not learn the Qur’an , could not employ muslin
worker or servants , could not build churches or ring church bells ,
had to be buried in their own religion cemeteries.
xi. Al-Andalus in the 12th century they outlawed christians and jews
when a new dynasty came into powers
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