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Lecture 12

HIST 1F90 Lecture 12: Pursuing Ethnic Hegemony.docx

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Elizabeth Neswald

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Pursuing Ethnic Hegemony: Nationality Problems, Minorities and Population Exchanges
Ends with 1.2 Million Greeks being kicked out of Turkey. HUGE population
Treaty of Sevres:
Greeks were given a big part of the Turkish territory. There
was a large Greek population living there.
This was Humiliating and it made Ataturk want to declare his
own Turkish government without the Ottoman Empire.
They didn’t want to follow the treaty. Ataturk made the capital
Ankara. There was a civil war between the Turkish and Ottoman Government.
Greece tried to take over the land and took advantage of the current civil war. Within a month they got 40 miles of Ankara. A lot
of ethnic cleansing was going on during this time.
By invading the Heartland of Turkey, they were basically waiting to release the beast of Turkish Nationalism, Ataturk. It takes a
year and Ataturk wins against the Ottoman Empire. He took advantage of the presence of the Greek army.
200k Greeks were kicked out of Smyrna/Izmir. The French and British navy’s brought the refugees and took them to Greece.
After Ataturk kicked out the western powers, he goes into
power and abolishes the Sultan and the religious rule. It is
now secular and modern. He didn’t want Islam to impact
their politics.
Treaty of Lausanne:
1.25 million Greeks in Turkey were sent to Greece and
400k Turks from Greece were sent to Turkey.
There was a large gap in the exchanges. The Greeks from
Turkey weren’t like the Greeks in Greece; they had a
different Culture, and spoke another dialect. They were housed in refugee camps, they had limited jobs….
Many of the Turks in Greece learned the Greek Culture and language and had a difficult time in Turkey.
As long as there are minorities, you aren’t safe. (Human Flag Posts)
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