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History Module 3 – Germany’s Empire 1871.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIST 1F90
Professor
Efram Sera- Shriar
Semester
Fall

Description
History Module 3Germanys Empire 18711945What is Germanyy Through 18711945 Germany goes through many changesy After WWI Hitler did his best to take back German lands y Is Germany a country or an Empire y After 1939 Hitler seeks to expand everything y Hitler and many Germans felt these claims were just bc they were greatly reduced with Treaty of Versaillesy Second German Empire 1871 y Vast territoryy Problems with Germany from 1871 until recently is exactly whatwho is Germany y 1871 is beginning of modern Germany y Prior to this Germany was not a country many states like Prussia Bavaria etc y Small city states duchies small monarchiesthy In the 10 century the Holy Roman Empire is seen as a German territory but included nonGerman placesy Poets philosophers and scholars refer to themselves as German nationalists y With destruction of HRE Germans start to come togethery 1848 there is a very democratic movement to bring everyone together by unifying Germany by elections y Toss the monarchy and have a unified Germany y FAILS y Fails bc those who have interest of maintain status quo stop it from continuingy However it sets the stage for the unification of Germanyy In 1871 Otto Von Bismarck uses nondemocratic means to unify Germany y Used strong military exploits instead of Democratic means y Sets a precedent for the rest of German history are they warhungry y Many wars create German unification y 1860s there is a movement to solidify German unity y Many different territories that speak German however not all joinAustria and Prussia are sworn enemies but both huge German speaking statesy 1870 FrancoPrussian War leads to a more unified Germany y Leads to second German Empire y Want to make a sense of continuityGerman people have a common ancestry and historyy Makes it feel that the German nation has always existed they just needed to be brought togethery Are the people living in the border areas actually German or something else y Who is German who isnty Bismarck becomes Chancellor King of Prussia becomes Kaiser Wilhelm Iy Bismarck created this Germany not the Kaisery There is a huge distinction between Wilhelm IIs Empire and Bismarcks Empirey 1888 year of Three EmperorsWilhelm I dies 2 months later his son Frederick dies Wilhelm II takes control y Wilhelm II forces Bismarck to resign following Chancellors dont have the same type of power y Under Wilhelm II goes to WarWWI y Germany suffers the worst from the war allies essentially starve them out in a siegey By Summer 1918 Germany is on the offensive and almost win the war but with the US coming in and overextensiony Navy and Army figure out that they cannot keep fighting starts a revolutiony Starts with sailors mutinying and spreads to the whole nation y Wilhelm II abdicates and flees to Belgiumy In November of 1918 Empire dies and Democratic Republic is ushered iny New era fro Germany y However bc they are defeated they lose large chunks of land in treaty of Versaillesy Hitler capitalizes on German angery 19181933 Wiemar Republic y Germany is able to survive and in the Stock Market crash of 1929 Germany is plunged deep in economic Depressiony Govt cannot deal with huge unemployment rates and falters y Hitler capitalizes on weakness of the systemy He insinuates himself into govt and appoints himself chancellor and eventually rule single handedlyy 19331945 is the Third ReichHitlers Empirey Wants to create a thousand year empire y Hitler begins WWII and occupies fast amounts of European territoryy WWII is the most devastating catastrophe in human history because of Hitlers design ambition and decisionsy After 1945 Hitler commits suicide and Germany is once again dividedy Creation of East and West Germanyy Within Eastern Germany Berlin lost the capital status and the city itself was divided in half y Many East Germans defected into West Berliny Overnight in 1961 the Berlin Wall is built making it impossible for anyone to defecty Becomes a symbol of the divisiony Despised by Germans and rest of the world is torn down in 1989y 1990 German Reunificationy HowWhy do we study German History
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