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Lecture 15

Lecture 15. Hitler & 16. Challenges to the Peace Nov 8 2013.docx

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Brock University
David Schimmelpenninck

CHALLENGES TO THE PEACE – Lecture: November 8, 2013 Outline - Italy - Japan Key Terms - Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) - Fasci di Combattimento - Partito nazionale fascite - fascism - fasces - Blackshirts - duce - March on Rome (1922) - King Victor Emmanuel III (r. 1900-1946) - Giacomo Matteotti (r. 1912-1926) - Taisho Emperor - Taisho Democracy - ultra-nationalism - Greater Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere Notes - Italy and Japan are not entirely to blame - Both were very unhappy with the Peace of Versailles - They felt that they did not get enough for joining the allies - The Italians wanted the Northern and Eastern boarders - Since the Italians did not get what they wanted, this resulted in an outburst - Benito Mussolini o Nationalist o Began his career as a socialist o Supported Italy’s place in the war o Good at ceasing power and holding onto his power - Black shirts were worn by the Italian fascists - Much like how Hitler’s followers would call out “Führer,” Mussolini’s followers would call out “duce, duce” - “fasces” are a bunch of sticks wrapped around an ax and were used to beat and chop off people’s heads o Only done in rituals or festivities o Was a symbol of state power - People called Mussolini’s movement “fascism” o Fascism can be defined by an authoritarian state, an extreme love of patriotism and militarism, the state controls everything, also resembles “corporatism” - The difference between Mussolini’s and Hitler’s fascism was that Mussolini lacks the racial element that Hitler’s was - Mussolini’s men beat up and terrorized socialist leaders - Unlike Italy, Japan did very well after WWI - Japan had a relatively mature economic and political industrial economy - October 1929 was the Black Thursday crash - 1926 was the time of economic turndown from Banks failing o The unemployment rate increased by 3 million o Japan’s exports decreased by 50% - Questions Japan’s validity of Western Liberal Democracy - Japan admired Germany - The Imperial Japanese Army o o - Ultrana
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