The Second Wave of Invaders
(Week 5, October 8 , 2013)
Invasion of the British:
The Lost Colony of Roanoke.
The Founding of Jamestown.
Origins of Plymouth Colony.
Massachusetts Bay Colony.
(Britain relied on Spanish model when colonizing).
Britain influenced by success of Spanish, finance an expedition led by John Cabot using a northern route across the
Cabot sets sail May 20 , 1497 and sights land June 24, 1497 which he names Newfoundland.
Amazed at the abundance of fish.
Discovers a large passage he assumes to be the allusive water route to China (actually St.Lawrence River).
Cabot returns to England with the news of his discovery and is told to prepare a return voyage the next year.
Cabot’s return voyage is lost at sea and British interest in the New World elapses for almost a century (1580’s).
The Lost Colony of Roanoke:
1583 Sir Humphrey Gilbert leads an expedition of 5 ships which land in Newfoundland, however, they decide the
climate is too inhospitable and they abandon the colony and return to England.
1585 Sir Walter Raleigh is given a royal charter to create a colony further south (with the intention that it would be
a settlement from which to launch attacks on the Spanish armada crossing theAtlantic with gold).
They land on an island they name Roanoke where they set off in search of gold.
Pirate base, Spanish attack, not a permanent colony.
Don’t want to waste time growing crops so resort to stealing from local native tribes leading to hostilities.
Due to war with Spain, supply ships do not arrive in colony until 1590 and find it deserted.
Only clue of the fate of the lost colony is the word “Croatoan” carved into trees - what happened to the settlers?
Again, the failure of Roanoke caused British crown to lose interest in the New World.
Still a mystery today - cannibalism, adoption into Croatoan tribes?
The Founding of Jamestown:
Peace wasthchieved with Spain in 1604.
April 10 , 1606 King James grants charter of 2 joint stock companies (Virginia Company of London and Virginia
company of Plymouth).
The Virginia Company of Plymouth sends an expedition of 120 settlers who land in present day Maine, and they
suffer disease and Indian attacks, those who survived returned to England.
Virginia Company of London sends 144 settlers who land and establish a settlement at Jamestown in a colony they
Colony struggles to survive, most inhabitants are starving, some resort to cannibalism.
These were business ventures (companies and investors fund), not provided by the King
All British ventures to North America are for quick gold, none want to settle, or grow food.
Founding of Jamestown:
Failure to build an agricultural colony a result of desire to find gold, effects of disease, lack of farmers in first
ships, lots of nobles.
Relations with Powhatan Confederacy are violent as settlers try to steal natives food. In 1617, John Rolfe first Englishman to learn how natives cultivate tobacco.
Virginia colony turns en Masse to growing tobacco to satisfy the growing demand in Europe of smoking.
Biggest dilemma is who will be the labour force for the tobacco economy.
Ritual to smoke tobacco pipe when sealing a trade (shaking hands).
Tobacco became a reason to create a permanent colony.
Protestant reformation began in Europe in the 16 century as Theologians like Martin Luther argued the Catholic
church was too rigid and dedicated to hierarchy and ritual.
Reformation spread to England in 1529 when King Henry VIII’s request for a divorce was refused by the Pope.
King Henry broke ties with the Catholic church and installed himself as the head of the Church of England.
Growing segment of British felt that the Church of England was too similar to the Catholic church in it’s emphasis
in ritual and argued that the Protestant Church needed to be purified (hence became known as Puritans).
Most radical element of Puritans argue that they need to form their own church (known as Separatists).
Law in England re