HIST 1F96 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Indigenous Peoples Of The Eastern Woodlands, Plains Indians, Crop Rotation
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Native Societies in North America
(Week 3, September 24 th
Native Americans Prior to European Invasion:
Development of Agriculture.
Eastern Woodland Peoples.
Great Plains Tribes.
South Western Tribes.
Far Western Tribes.
Diversity of North American indigenous peoples.
Civilizations in North America were small, civilizations in South America were much larger.
How did native people get here?
Great ice age (30,000-12,000 B.C.E.) ocean levels dropped exposing land between Asia and North America.
Hunting and gathering societies follow game animals down and ice-free corridor along the eastern side of the
Population disperses in all directions, eventually reaching tip of South America.
8,000 B.C.E. glaciers retreat and ocean levels rise submerging bearing land bridge.
Native societies develop isolated from the rest of the world for over 10,000 years.
From Asia, through Rockies to warmer climates following game.
Over thousands of years people had migrated all around North America.
Siberian land bridge.
Glaciation as far South as the Great Lakes.
Went all the way to South America.
Western hemisphere covered in indigenous.
10,000 years native people are isolated.
Developed their own culture/way of life.
Exchange of ideas.
Didn’t have the ability to “discover” Europe.
Inability to fight European diseases (90-95% death rate).
Tribes appoint youths with good memory skills to act as historians by observing culture and council talks and
mentally recording them.
All creation stories assert that tribes are indigenous to North and South America.
All tribes see life emanating from the earth (how can you see Mother Earth).
Creation stories all feature animal creatures (respect for brothers means tribal hunting rituals and prayer).
All natural things have a spirit (sun, moon, rain and thunder), therefore ceremonial offerings may appease these
Creation of North America by a turtle.
All tribes have different creation stories.
Mother Nature opened up and gave people and buffalo.
Looked at land as spiritual being versus property or economical value.
Hunting being is symbolic versus game.
Everything has spirits (rain, sun, snow, plants, and animals versus God).
Science versus creation.
Development of Agriculture:
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