HIST 1F96 Lecture
January 21 , 2014
Last week recap: Slavery and Race in the 19 Century
• Slave resistance.
• Dependence on historical context and population and economic context makes up
• Abolishment of slavery.
• WhiteAmerican views vs. White European views.
Territorial Expansion and Indigenous Resistance:
• Expanding territorial boundaries.
• Expansionism: a nationalist project.
• Native-newcomer conflict in the 19 century:
o United States
• Indigenous adaptation and resistance.
• In conflict with national expansion:
o Weakened other peoples (ex, Indigenous) culture.
War and Expansion:
In the United States:
• Seven Years War:
o British declared Indigenous land west of theAppalachian Mountains could not be
• American Revolution:
o Iroquois sided with the British.
o Population growth moved west into Indigenous land.
o The Louisiana Purchas was bought from the French, which doubled the size of
land in the United States.
• War of 1812:
o Promoted byAmerican expansionists who wanted to take over part of the
o Britain promised land back to the Indigenous people.
o Argued that no one won, but the Indigenous lost.
o 4.9 millionAmericans moved west, many were slaveholders.
• United States-Mexico War (1846-1848):
o In 1821 Mexico became an independent nation with a very low population.
o The war was triggered byAmerican slaveholders.
o In Northern Mexico, there came to be 8 times as manyAmericans as there were
o Mexico had abolished slavery.
o 1845 United States took over Texas.
o The Treaty of Guadalupe was signed. o About half of what was Mexico becameAmerican territory.
• Civil War (1861-1865):
o Would new territory be free or enslaved?
o Under President Lincoln, new land was available for development (ex, railroad,
cattle ranches and mining).
• Seven Years War:
o Britain occupied lower Ontario, Quebec, all of the Maritimes and all of British
Columbia (very few Europeans in the west).
o Fur trade companies occupied most of Canada (middle and North).
o 1950’s and 60’s gold rush pushed western settlement (ex, Victoria and
• Confederation (1867):
o Pushed settlement in the west.
o In the early 1870’s, Manitoba andAlberta became independent.
Nationalism: a comparison:
• Monroe Doctrine.
• Manifest Destiny:
o “and that claim is by the right of our manifest destiny to overspread and to
possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given for us for the
development of the great experiment of liberty and federated self-government
entrusted to us” –John L. O’Sullivan, 1845.
o United States is destined to expand its borders.
o God’s plan to expand: invoke for future implications of other nations?
• Demonstration of White national unity: this pushed British Columbia further into
• French Canada became nationalistic after Metis rebellion.
• Newfoundland joined nation in 1849.
• In 1867, the United States boughtAlaska from Russia: this helped the British Columbia
movement into Confederation.
• United States threat helps:
o Canada nationalism largely due to United States expansion.
• Post-Civil War quest for national unity.
• Britain oversees process:
• Regional divisions:
• United States threat helps.
Native New-Comer Conflict in the 19 Century:
The United States:
• Before theAmerican Revolution, Indigenous people had leverage with British powers.
o Indigenous people were in conflict with