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Lecture 11

HIST 1F96 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Toussaint Louverture, Yellow Fever, Hacienda

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Tami Friedman

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The Bourbon Reforms and the Rise of Creole Nationalism
December 3rd, 2013
Terms: Cadiz & Seville, debt peonage, Rio de la Plata, Consolidacion de Vales Reales,
Toussant L’Ouverture, Jean-Jacques Dessalines and Henri Christophe
**Spain takes a much more dramatic interest in their colonies and passes
legislation that upsets colonists
Decline of Royal Restriction:
-Essence of Spanish economic policy was mercantilism (colonies exist to increase
wealth of mother country)
-Reformers in Spain, argued restrictions on trade needed to be lifted
-Pre-1765, trade with colonies could only pass through two ports in Spain (Cadiz
& Seville); then opened seven more ports
-1789, commerce allowed between all Spanish ports and New World colonies
Effects of New Policies:
-Increase in volume of trade between Spain and its colonies
-Prices of goods dropped (esp. for colonists)  more products, lower cost
-Diminished illegal trade with foreign nations
-1778-1788, trade was increased by 700% between Spain and its colonies
1. Economic Diversification:
-Economic Progress:
-Repeal of restrictions on colonial trade helped create a new class of merchants in
the Spanish colonies
-Through mining, sugar and cattle the colonies became more wealthy than the
mother country
-Many colonial merchants began to argue for the benefits of free trade, wanting
an end to mercantilist policies
2. Labour Reforms:
-Agricultural Systems:
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-Caribbean and mainland Spanish colonies continued to rely on African slaves
and plantation labour system for sugar, tobacco and coffee production
-1769, “Clearance Certificates” introduced which indicated labourers owed no
outstanding debts otherwise could not seek employment with another landowner
(debt peonage)
-Vagrancy laws (if you couldn’t prove that you had an employer) allow idle to be
arrested and made to work in mines or haciendas
-Rise of the Cattle Trade:
-Most Spanish colonies stay tied to mining or slave based staple export
-Exception: the rise of cattle trade in Rio de la Plata (Argentina)
-Huge cattle ranches (80 000 – 100 000) dominated the landscape around the
capital Buenos Aires
-1790, Buenos Aires was exporting 1.5 million hides a year
-Hides exported to Spain met European demand for leather
-Meat exported to Caribbean to feed slaves (salt packing of beef)
3. Political Changes:
-Political Reform:
-Spanish reformers argued the political division of New World in two viceroyalties
was ineffectual
-Left distant areas vulnerable for attack
-Made communicating political changes over vast regions difficult
-Government broke viceroyalties into smaller parts
1739, Vice Royalty of New Granada (Capital Bogota)  Columbia
1776, Vice Royalty of Rio de la Plata (Capital Buenos Aires)
1777, Captain Generalcy of Venezuela
1778, Captain Generalcy of Chile
Effects of Political Reform:
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