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Lecture 10

HIST 1F96 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Maurice Duplessis, Double V Campaign, American Indian Movement

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Tami Friedman

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Freedom Struggle in the 1960s
March 18th, 2014
The Latin American ‘60s:
-New Forms of Resistance
Vietnam War
oVietnam was under siege by China and was under control of France
oAfter WWII, mother countries were finding it hard to maintain control
over their colonies – in this case France
oFrance wanted to prevent a revolution
oUS government stepped in and tried to pull Vietnam back into a
colonial state
oUS wasn’t winning the war in the 60s
oCastro claimed “The empire is not invincible”
Domestic Unrest
oStudent demonstrations (eg. Mexico in 1968)
oLower class are upset with the influence of foreign investors
oChallenge authoritarian rule
Forms of resistance drew on national identity and cultural heritage
oFolk music was used to try and reclaim indigenous music forms
oPopular Unity Coalition: led by Salvador Allende Gossens; wanted to
create a democratic, popular and national government in Chile
-Government Responses at Home and Abroad
Independent foreign policy
oChallenging US policies
oImposed restrictions on US investment
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oStudents intensified their opposition to the government (university in
Mexico City)
oImage was important because Mexico was hosting the Olympics in
1968 (first developing country to do so)
Efforts to alter balance of power with United States
oUS officials were close to Latin American military leaders
oWanted to destabilize economies (esp. in Chile)
oMany people were seeking a new kind of independence
New Nations of Nation-Building:
-The Quest for Integration
Jim Crow was a system of segregation where Black people were
discriminated against and treated unequally in all walks of life
Segregation existed in all Southern states (and also in the North, but not
legally enforced)
By stepping out of your place, you could face violence
Idea that if black people were fighting for American freedom, why do they not
have freedom
Students began sit-ins
Created the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
oSinging was important to their unity and courage – Freedom Singers
o“Double V” Campaign: victory over seas and victory over discrimination
at home
oBrown vs. Board of Education (1954): made it illegal to have
segregated schools
-Toward Black, Brown, Red and Yellow, Power
Movement that was aiming for equal opportunity
New ways of thinking of coloured people
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