feb 6th lec 5.docx

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19 Mar 2012

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Industrial Revolutions
Produced extreme economic inequality and poverty
Considerable social conflict/ disorder/ unrest
Led to efforts by workers to combine with each other to create the working class identity
However, lots of divisions within working class
Led middle class people to try to reshape the government to improve working conditions
The (rail)road to industry
The Canadian Case
o As a colony of Britain, Canada sold/exchanged natural resources for finished
o Preferential treatment colonies got first pick of trade
Switched to free trade
o Canada now needed a way to trade with the western end
Canals existed in the waterways (ie. welland) but needed something foor
o Why were rail roads important?
Facilitated national markets
Served as major employers 15 000 chinese workers
Stimulated growth of other industries that supplied railroads (ie. steel,
coal, etc)
Stimulated growth of consumer-goods industries (more significant in U.S.)
The U.S. Example
Industrial Expansion: a Comparison
Why a U.S. powerhouse? Not Canadian
o A Matter of Scale
Vast natural resources (ie copper/ coal)
Huge domestic market
Huge labour force with low cost Immigrant labour
Corporate power: growth, consolidation, and political influence
o A matter of control
Access to raw materials and markets
Managerial control
o Canada went through a similar process but on a smaller scale.
o We need to look at the relationship between the 2 countries
Investments Canada was more dependent on foreign investors including
Us was more independent
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