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Lecture 4

History of the Modern Middle East - Lecture Four.docx

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Behnaz Mirzai

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HIST 2P72 1 29 January 2013 History of the Modern Middle East: Lecture Four European Expansion in the Middle East  Sixteenth century  Eighteenth century  Nineteenth century – France, Britain, Russia Islamic Responses to European Expansion  Islamic modernism  Afghani and Abduh  Islamic revivalism  Religious revival  Political revival European Expansion in the Middle East – 16 Century  In the sixteenth century, European Maritime technology improved significantly  Notably over speed and fire power  Westerners possessed stronger and larger ships than Muslim states and could travel greater distancesthenabling them to maneuver the oceans  In the 16 century, the primary concern of Britain was safe sea transport to India  Britain’s interest in the Middle East was exclusively commercial (commerce and trade)  Gradually, trade between the Maritime states of Western Europe and the Middle East expanded and Western merchants and manufacturers could dominate Middle Eastern markets  This resulted in the replacement of many Middle Eastern manufacturers by European goods  Middle Eastern societies became more and more dependent on imports from Europe th European Expansion in the Middle East – 18 Century  The political influence of Europeans expanded in India and the Middle East through conquest, economic penetration, and diplomatic  Great powers were competing over the control of the Middle East  The threat of the creation of the French empire in India turned the Britain’s East India Company from trade to an empire  India was very important to Britain – an economic strategy  The EIC shifted their policy from being an economic to a political power in India  European conflict between French and Britain impacted their foreign policy, specifically in India  In addition to the competition over resources in the Middle East between France and Britain, Russia was also very interested in the region and wanted to have access to the sea trade route of the Black Sea, Mediterranean, and Persian Gulf  In this time period, Russia also expanded their control of central Asia European Expansion in the Middle East – 19 Century  Period of rapid modernization and Western economic and financial interests became more direct, leading to territorial invasion in the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia  In the 19 century, Britain, France, and Russia maintained interest in the Ottoman Empire  Britain and France were interested in the Ottoman Empire because of commerce, geographical strategy, and military alliances  Also, they were competing to gain control of Middle Eastern routes to secure their interest in the East and South-East Asia  The Europeans were intervening in Ottoman domestic affairs on behalf of religious and ethnic minorities  France claimed to represent the interests of all Roman Catholics inside the Ottoman Empire  Russia claimed to protect all Orthodox Christians  The Russians wanted to gain Istanbul and establish a Christian Empire and expand their control in Asia  In 1798, Napoleon took Egypt  The goal of the French was to destroy the old/dominant political system in Egypt, but indeed the purpose of the French conquering of Egypt was to attack the route to India, which was being controlled by Britain at the time  Access to India was crucial – thus the British were so desperate to block this access to others  The Ottomans joined Britain and Russia against the French invasion  The Middle Eastern countries and governments became involved in the European conflict – they had no choice but to choose a side  France, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire reached an agreement to expel the French in 1799  In 1801, the French forces were surrounded  Following the invasion to Egypt, the French consoles were expelled from Baghdad (Iraq)  The fall of Napoleon left Britain as the dominant authority in the Middle East  After the Napoleonic Wars, the EIC consolidated into a commercial and strategic position in the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia  In 1839, the British claimed Aden (in Saudi Arabia) and then by 1870, the British expanded their influence to Africa  The British controlled the Arab states in the U.A.E. to suppress piracy and the evolution of the slave trade in the Indian Ocean  The Sultan of Oman
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