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Lecture 5

History of the Modern Middle East - Lecture Five.docx

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Brock University
Behnaz Mirzai

HIST 2P72 1 5 February 2013 History of the Modern Middle East: Lecture Five The World Wars Lecture Outline WWI (1914-1918) The Ottoman Empire:  External forces – the Sykes-Picot Treaty of 1916  Internal oppositions – the Armenians and the Arabs Aftermath of WWI:  Social, political, and economic transformations  Change of frontiers – the San Remo conference and the Treaty of Sevres of 1920  Loss of population  Emergence of nationalism and a new state identity WWII (1939-1945) The Ottoman Empire – External Forces  In the beginning, the Ottomans wanted neutrality  But during the war, much of the fighting took place on Ottoman soil  The impact of war largely affected Ottoman territory  On August 2 , 1914, the minister of war of the Ottoman Empire signed a secret alliance with Germany  They each agreed to assist each other  The main motives for the Ottoman government were:  To win back Egypt from the British  And the Caucuses region from Russia  In November 1914, the Ottoman Sultan (ruler) issued a call to the holy war (or Jihad) against France, Russia, and Britain in order to unite Muslims against their invasion  Consequently, the great mass of Turks volunteered to fight for the Sultan  More than 1 million Ottoman soldiers took part in war  The Ottoman Empire was vulnerable due to its extensive borders  The German army was commanding the Ottoman officers and training them to use modern weapons during the war  In 1916, the Sykes-Picot Treaty between France and Britain divided the Arab Middle East  The SP Treaty recognized France’s direct rule in much of northern and western Syria, the Syrian coast from Southern Lebanon into Anatolian including Damascus, Aleppo, and Mosul  Britain had direct control over Iraq and its indirect control between Egyptian and Eastern Arabia  This was a “secret” negotiation that divided the region  The question of Palestine  Palestine was positioned under international administration because of the holy places/mosques The Ottoman Empire – Internal Oppositions  Divided the people of the Middle East into two groups: 1. Armenians  Nationalists in Russia and Anatolia wanted to create an independent Armenia  The cooperation of the Armenians with Russia was regarded as a threat to the Ottomans  In 1915, an Armenian government was proclaimed in Van (city in Turkey), which resulted in the deportation of Armenians and the massacre/genocide  The Armenians were forced to evacuate from Eastern and Southern Anatolia in 1915  They were sent to the Syrian desert and some of them were settled in refugee camps in Lebanon  Many of them died from exhaustion and starvation or were killed 2. Arabs  A large number of Arabs in the Hijaz, Palestine, and Syria began to fight the Turks  Arabs were united against the Turks  Some Arab leaders and rebellions were executed by the Ottoman rulers  The Arab states along the Western shore of the Persian Gulf and the Southern coast of Arabia had a treaty of friendship with Britain, which led to the creation of protectorates  Arabia entered anstgreement with the British i
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