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History of the Modern Middle East - Lecture Six.docx

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Behnaz Mirzai

HIST 2P72 1 12 February 2013 History of the Modern Middle East: Lecture Six Nationalism in Turkey The Concept of Nationality Nationality in English and French Societies  The word nationality indicates the country or state which in which one is a citizen or subject of  Citizenship, language, and religion are the determining factors of national identity  Boarders are mad made and rarely affect the identity of people  Creation of nationalism after WWI as a man-made concept Nationality in the Islamic World Iran, Iraq, and Turkey  Share boarders  People living along the borders share the same identity, speak the same language, and share the same religion  Creation of national identity becomes a political matter Before the influence of Europe:  Before the modern period, religion (Islam) was a measure of identity, faith, and membership in a religious community  Separated people from one another th  Up until the 20 century, the Ottoman empire was not a Turkish nation state  Consisted of many ethnic and religious groups  These groups included Turks, Arabs, Kurds, ethnic and religions groups  Had created their own community and nations  70 nations within the Ottoman empire  All considered equal and brothers In the 20 century:  Western ideals of nation  Undermined the ideology and the old structure of society  Gradually, the idea of nation replaced fate  Up until not, the Muslims were considered brothers  Important factor in binding people together  Identified based on territory and nationality  The Kurds now separate  Most of the Ottoman’s supported by foreigners, investment, selling to create more tension  All Muslims were previously united  Mandates  Certain European countries were suddenly in control of places in the Middle East until they were “independent”  Notion of nationalism first appeared in the Middle East among the Greeks and the Serbs  Wanted to be separate  Then there were nationalist wars of liberation following this notion and ideology  Turkish nationalism emerged after the Ottoman empire in WWI The Emergence of Modern Turkey Lausanne  Treaty of Lausanne signed on the 24 of July, 1923  It ended the Ottoman empire and led to the belief that they needed to reorganize into modern Turkey Ataturk’s Reforms  Ataturk was a solder in the front lines during the war  His name is Mustafa Kemal  Ataturk meaning father of the Turks (he was Turkey’s architect)  He attended military school  During WWI he served in the army and led Turkish national independence  He is best known for the reforms which changed the face of Turkey  Ataturk and Reza Shah were ruling at the same time (imitation of Ataturk’s policy)  Doctrine is known as Kemalism  Abolition of Ottoman institutions and traditions  Kemal proposed to the national assembly (parliament) the abolition of the Sultanate (king)  Refers to the political structure of the Ottoman empire  On November 4 , 1922, the assembly separated the caliphate from the political structure  He was aiming to create a new political system  During the Ottoman empire there was the caliph (political and religious leader of the Islamic community) and the Sultan  One was a religious leader, while the other was a king  But there was a transformation that caused the Sultan to assume the caliph’s role as well  Ataturk proposed to separate the two roles again  Caliph was supposed to be the leader before the Ottoman empire  The Sultanate was abolished and there was no more king  Nationalist group after this moved to Constantinople/Istanbul and the Ottoman administration formally came to an end  But now what is there to do about the Caliph? HIST 2P72 3 12 February 2013 Removal of Islam as the Principal Social Force in Turkey  Not easy to achieve and this is a still a problem/challenge in Turkey today  Wanted to establish a Turkey that was free from Islam and the East  Ataturk tried to create a new society attached to the Middle East  The Caliph was abolished by the national assembly in March of 1924  Islamic institutions – Shaykh-al-Islam referred to the head of religious scholars  He possessed religious and
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