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Lecture 7

History of the Modern Middle East - Lecture Seven.docx

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Brock University
Behnaz Mirzai

HIS 2P72 1 26 February 2013 History of the Modern Middle East: Lecture Seven Nationalism in Iran Overview of Lecture From Reza Khan to Reza Shah (same person – the transformation of his image) to king  Reza Shah’s policy 1) Liberation from foreign political domination 2) Economic development: financial reform, increasing revenue, communication and economy 3) Government centralization: local governors, tribes, political parties, armies, judicial system 4) Social reforms and cultural progress: education, dress code, women, national identity Oil Nationalization Reza Khan’s Transformation into King  Reza Khan was born in a village in northern Iran in 1878  He had a limited education and worked as an officer in the army  His status elevated  Iran was under a lot of pressure from foreign countries at this time and was making many changes  In 1907, Iran was divided between Russian and British control  The Soviet forces occupied land and remained their – they did not want to evacuate  He organized a secret society of Persian officers and he opposed to British and Russian control  He dismissed all Russian officers and gained control of his country’s strongest force  What was important for him was to gain control of the military forces in Iran  On February 21 , 1921, Reza Khan led a coup d’état against the government regime of Iran and thus became the Minister of War  The transition of power from the old regime (the Qajar dynasty) to the new regime that he created (Pahlavi regime)  When he became the Minister of War, he negotiated with the Russians to form a treaty of 1921 in which Russia agreed to remove its forces from Iran  In 1923, Reza Khan became the Prime Minister  Here, he negotiated the evacuation of the British from Iran  Ahmad Shah was the last king of the Qajar dynasty  In 1923, Ahmad Shah left for Paris and never returned  In 1925, the Iranian parliament officially deposed Ahmad Shah and abolished the Qajar dynasty  In December of 1925, Reza Khan officially became Reza Shah, king  In 1926, the Pahlavi dynasty began Reza Shah’s Policy – Liberation from Foreign Political Domination  His policy was to unite and stabilize Iran  He wanted Iranian troops to control the Gulf instead of British and Russian troops  In 1928 the rights to foreigners for legal privileges were abolished – the foreigners were unhappy and did not want to cooperate Reza Shah’s Policy - Economic Development Financial Reform and Increasing Revenue  Millspaugh was an American adviser who came to Iran from 1922-1927 and then again in 1942- 1945 because there was a crisis as a result of modernization – Iran was in great debt  To increase revenues, Reza Shah raised tariffs and taxes on imports for goods such as tea, sugar, and tobacco (these were the three major commodities of the time)  He also determined a state budget  He confiscated religious properties  The religious scholars (ulama) were not happy with the Pahlavi regime because of this reason  In 1939, all religious endowment lands were seized Communication and Economy  Industrial centres were developed and modern factories were established  One of the great things that Reza Shah developed (still in use) was the railway  In 1938, the trans-Iranian railway was constructed and completed  The railroad was 865 miles, which connected the Caspian Sea in northern Iran to the Persian Gulf in southern Iran Reza Shah’s Policy – Centralization of the Government Local Governors and Tribes  Local governments were disrupted  Regional administration came under the direct control of ministers in Iran  Their power was limited  Representatives were sent to the different villages and regions  He wanted to bring the local governors under the control of the state/capital Tehran  The structure of Iran is very different – and the tribal groups are constructed by hierarchies  Nomadic tribes were weakened and disarmed  Their migration was limited and tribal rebels were suppressed  He was trying to prevent any future rebellions by these powerful/armed groups HIS 2P72 3 26 February 2013 Political Parties and the Army  Opposition parties were abolished, unions were banned, communists were detained  In 1926, the p
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