Class Notes (838,998)
Canada (511,162)
Brock University (12,137)
History (295)
HIST 2P72 (9)
Lecture 10

History of the Modern Middle East - Lecture Ten.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

Behnaz Mirzai

HIST 2P72 1 19 March 2013 History of the Modern Middle East: Lecture Ten Iran: Revolution and War Lecture Outline  Iran before the Islamic revolution (1941-1979)  Foreign policy  Economic policy  Western cultural influence  Internal political pressure  The Ulama  The start of the revolution (1978)  Khomeini (leader of the Islamic revolution)  Strike and demonstration  The end of the Pahlavi Regime in Iran  Revolutionary cabinet  The hostage crisis  The Iraq-Iran War (1980-1988)  Iran and Iraq before the war  Causes of war: 1. Religious schisms 2. Foreign conquest 3. Border disputes 4. Political differences  Iraq’s invasion  End of war Iran Before the Islamic Revolution Foreign Policy  Because of Iran’s geographic position, which was located between the Soviet Union and the Persian Gulf, the Shah was supported by the US  Iran was very strategically important  Iran was used as a placement of the Persian Gulf for guns, tanks, and planes to prevent Soviet expansion and influence Economic Policy  Muhamad Reza Shah initiated a white revolution in 1963, which aimed at redistributing lands, nationalizing forests, and profit sharing in industry  By force, the Shah of Iran confiscated the lands from land-owners and distributed them among peasants  As a result, the land-owners were very unhappy  In the rural areas, peasants were not provided with seeds or tools for agriculture  So, farmers migrated to the cities to work in factories because they had no means to work the land  In essence, this reform was unsuccessful  The population of Tehran increased from 1 million in 1945 to 5 million in 1977  With the decline of agricultural production and investment in the agricultural sector, the peasants were incapable of working independently  Iran was becoming more dependent on oil and became an importer  The oil revenue in Iran financed a boom in constructional developments (like bridges)  Shah was the king of the Pahlavi regime  The Pahlavi regime held the costly ceremonies of coronation of Shah and his wife in 1967 and the 2,500 anniversary of the Iranian monarchy in 1971  The economic societies of the wealthy and poor classes were becoming more divided as a result of mismanagement in various economic policies  Wealth and revenue from oil was being wasted Western Cultural Influence  The Shah’s policy was to change the lifestyle of Iranian people  Schools and universities were proliferated  Students went abroad for higher education and some married foreigners  The conservative Islamic society was disrupted by Western influence  Films were shown that opposed the Islamic traditions and attitudes  Shah presented himself as pro-Western but his political attitude was centered around an autocratic regime to support his own agenda  He created fear among the Iranians (for example – jail, torture, killing) Internal Political Pressure  The Shah was portrayed as a dictator  He was against creating a democratic regime, although he was modeling Iran after Western/American society  The secret agency was extremely powerful and censored the public  Intellectuals, writers, and the ulama were jailed, mutilated, and killed The Ulama  Religious scholars and leaders of the people who enjoyed great power  The ulama had their disciples in the religious schools and opposed the Shah who aligned Iran with the Western powers  Qom was a religious city  One of the very influential ulama was Khomeini  He was a religious teacher in Qom who openly criticized the Shah’s policy  Following riots which broke out in various parts of Iran, he made a speech in Qom that created tension and resulted in many deaths  Women were chanting in the streets with their young infants  They said they would sacrifice their lives for Khomeini
More Less

Related notes for HIST 2P72

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.