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Lecture 11

History of the Modern Middle East - Lecture Eleven.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIST 2P72
Professor
Behnaz Mirzai
Semester
Winter

Description
HIST 2P72 1 26 March 2013 History of the Modern Middle East: Lecture Eleven The United States and the Middle East Lecture Outline  Post-WWII  Cold War  Iran  Israel  The Suez War  Lebanon  Post-9/11 The Cold War  This period highlights the confrontation between the US and the Soviet Union  We can also call it international communism or international capitalism  The Truman Doctrine (1947) was the Cold War strategy against the Soviet imperialism through which the US committed to direct military and economic support for the threatened areas  Under the term national interest, the foreign policy of the US and Russia was determined  The US pursued the policy of preventing the Soviet moves in Turkey and Iran  The Russians desired to access the water port in the Persian Gulf  The national interest goals of the US and Soviet Union could create conflict in this region  One of the most important national interest goals of the US has been the delivery of petroleum from its Middle East sources  Up until the 1960s, oil wasn’t critically important because supplies could be found within the domestic resources of the US  As time progressed, however, the US became more reliant on Middle Eastern oil reserves Iran  Musadiq, who was prime minister from 1951-1953, challenged the Anglo-Iranian oil agreements  He also nationalized the company’s holdings  He had the control of the country and its army and was strongly supported by the Iranian public  But, the British and American intervention policies brought Musadiq’s downfall and ended his reign in government  The shah of Iran was brought to the country in 1953  Since then, this was followed by strong support of the US until the Iranian Revolution in 1979  Americans played a direct role of intervention in terms of changing the government of Iran, which was supported by the public and intended to protect the national interests of the country  But the US and Soviet Union ended this popular government  All of the policies and decision made in Iran before the revolution were consulted and influenced by the US  Now we see a more direct influence of the Russians in the region  During the Eight-Years War between Iran and Iraq, which began in 1980, the US became directly involved in the conflict  One of the US navies present in the Persian Gulf shut down an Iranian passenger plane  This region of the Persian Gulf is very vulnerable to the intervention of foreign countries  The flow and shipment of oil and petroleum through this region  Securing this region was desired to control the oil resources and to limit Soviet influence  The ships were flagged as American  The US involvement between the Iran-Iraq war resulted in the ending of the war by Khomeini  Khomeini indicated that he ended the war because it became so intense and the regime of Saddam was supported by all of the countries, except for Russia  The anti-American policy resulted in a decrease in US dependency on Middle Eastern oil Israel  After the creation of Israel in 1948, Truman considered the protection of the country as the main objective of the US  The role of the US as a supporter and protector of the Israeli estate determined its expansionism policy against the Soviet invasion in the Middle East  It consolidated its alliance with Turkey, Iran, and Pakistan while the Soviet Union broke relations with Israel and provided arms and aid to Egypt, Syria, and Iraq  The Us relations with Syria, Egypt, and Iraq deteriorated  This was the period of intense relation between the US and the Soviet Union  From 1973, the US was involved in international politics in the Middle East as a super power and attempted to play both sides of the Arab-Israel conflict  President Carter played an important role in the Camp David Accords  The Sinai territory was returned to Egypt  In general, there was continuity between the Carter and Ragan foreign policies  The Ragan Plan was the creation of Palestinian entity, w
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