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Lecture

HLSC 1F90 Lecture Notes - Mammography, Scrotum, Lumpectomy


Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
HLSC 1F90
Professor
Brent Faught

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CHSC 1F90 November 13, 2012
Cancer
Week #10
Abnormal Cell Growth and Spread
- Place or origin is what type of cancer you call it i.e. lung cancer
- Cancer is the #1 disease that Canadians die from
Probability of Developing/Dying from Cancer
- Based on current incident rates (will develop cancer during their lifetime)
40% of Canadian women
45% of Canadian men
- Based on current mortality rates (will die from cancer):
24% of Canadian women
29% of Canadian men
(~ 1 in 4 Canadians)
- After age of 70 we have less success of helping keep people living without cancer
Detecting Cancer
- Screening
DRE (easier than biopsy) middle finger up bum
PSA (easiest than biopsy)
- Diagnosing
- Prostate cancer: biopsy (sample or slice)
- Early detection stops death **
- Cell division: Normal cells take 5-7 days to divide, cancer cells take about 12 hours
- Neoplasm turns into Tumor. We can confirm tumor through a Biopsy
- Benign (non-cancerous) tumor. Grows through expansion
- Malignant (Cancerous) tumor. Grows through infiltration
- Cancer spread through circulatory and lymphatic system
Cancer “Causing” Theories
- Error in cell reproduction (spontaneous errors)
MUTATIONS
- External carcinogenic agents
80% of explanation of why people get cancer
- Oncogene theory
10% why people get cancer
We all have oncogene but some are not provoked
Oncogene + Carcinogenic Agent = Proto-oncogene
Suspected causes of Cancer
1. Occupational/ Environmental Factors
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CHSC 1F90 November 13, 2012
X-ray
B-rays
Asbestos
2. Social and Psychological Factors
Stress
Depression (decreases immune response)
3. Chemicals in Food
Sodium nitrates: in processed food, the preservatives (once broken down become
sodium amines carcinogenic agent aka really red meat)
4. Biological Factors
Genetic predisposition
5. Medical Factors
DES: (drug that stopped bleeding during pregnancy), girl offspring during that
pregnancy were at risk for reproductive cancers
6. Viral Factors
HPV
Hepatitis
Hepatitis B&C
Classifications of Cancer
- Carcinomas
Epithelial tissue
Most common type of cancer
Spreads through circulatory and lymph systems
Examples: lung cancer, skin cancer, breast cancer, oral cancer
Solid tumor
- Sarcomas
Mesodermal tissue
Less common
More aggressive
- Lymphomas
Develop and spreads through lymphatic system
Hodgkin lymphoma Reed-Sternberg cell
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 30+ types, more common than Hodgkin’s lymphoma
Solid tumor all over body
- Leukemia
Cancer of blood-forming parts of body, including bone marrow and spleen
Abnormal increase in number of WBC’s
Non-solid tumor
Stages of Cancer
- Work on a zero to 4 classification spread
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