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Lecture 11

HLSC 1F90 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Eustress, Developmental Psychology, Social Relation


Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
HLSC 1F90
Professor
Dr.Kelli-an Lawrance
Lecture
11

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2014-01-14 1:37 PM
Midterm on Tuesday feb-25…after reading week
Next week tobacco use
Managing stress
Stress:
! -Attending university is stressful for many young adults
- At any given time in te academic year:
! 75%-80% are somewhat stressed
! 10%-12% are severely stressed
Proportion of students who are “frequently overwhelmed” have increased
16% in 1985
27% in 2002
5,4,3,3=15/20--moderate
15*2.5
Young adults have more stressed then other age group
Mind garden perceived stress scale
Stress: an imposed factor on the individual body and mind.
-The same a demand/ situation / event may evoke different levels of stress for different
individuals.
Stressors: those physical, social, or mental demands/ situation/ events that evoke stress by
forcing the individual to respond and adapt
-Stressors can be positive or negative
-Positive stress= eustress e.g., vacation
-Negative stress= distress e.g. illness
general adaptation syndrome
-the GAS involves three progressive stages
- STAGE 1: ALARM
characterized by surprise/anxiety arising from a stressor
-The autonomic nervous system (ANS) activates
. part of central nervous system
. regulates body functions such as heart rate, respiration

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General adaptation syndrome
Alarm stage: sympathetic nervous system response
Immediate reaction: hypothalamus stimulates adrenal glans to
relate epinephrine “aka
Stage 2: resistance –adaptation to cope with stressor
Adaptation to efficiently cope with stressor
Ideally, adaptation occurs, the stressful situation is resolved,
homeostasis is regained
Problems arise when the resistance stage is prolonged or the alarm
response is excessive-
While everyone’s capacity to adapt is different, no one has completely
unlimited adaptation capacity.
Stage 3: exhaustion
! Depletion of energy reserves and loss of capacity for adaptation
! Exhaustion may lead to:
-Impairment of specific organs or glands (heart and adrenal gland)
-Impairments of blood vessels
-Impairment of immune system---stress-induced diseases and
more serious, longer-lasting illness
Picture for causes of stress…from textbook
Causes of stress
Self-imposed:
! Poor self-concept arising from poor self-esteem: leads to doubts about
abilities to cope, self-blame, learned helplessness, self-directed anger,
lack of psychological hardiness
! Self-efficacy and feeling of mastery: belief in one’s ability to cope with
stressors, past successes in doing so leading to expectations of continued
ability to do so.
Sources of stress:
Individual, interpersonal, and institutional
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*Stress can overcome from inside the individual, from how the
individual deals with others, and from the context in which the
individual lives
*Stress is the product of multiple factors operating at multiple levels
within and outside the individual
*This multi-layered context of human experience is detailed in a well-
known health and developmental psychology theory: bio-ecological
model
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