HLSC 1F90 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Sterol, Hypercalcaemia, Nutrient

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Week 14, Jan 14. 2016
Eating to live or living to eat
Nutrition
The science of foods and the substances they contain
oHow food nourishes our body
oHow food influences our health
Provide energy and nutrients
Used by the body for maintenance, growth, and repair
Importance of nutrition
Nutrition is one of several factors contributing to health
Nutrition
oCan prevent or reduce the risk for diseases
oMay be the cause of diseases
Diseases in which nutrition plays some role
Osteoporosis
Osteoarthritis
Some forms of cancer
Diseases with a strong nutritional component
Type 2 diabetes
Heart disease
High blood pressure
Obesity
Diseases caused by nutritional deficiencies or toxicities
Scurvy
Iron-deficiency anemia
Hypercalcemia (too much vitamin D)
Primary deficiency cause by
inadequate diet or secondary
deficiency caused by problem
inside the body
Diet history
Health history
Declining nutrient stores Laboratory test
Abnormal functions inside the
body
Laboratory test
Physical (outward) signs and
symptoms
Physical
examination
and
anthropometric
measures
Proactive
Proactive
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Risk Factors % Of total deaths
1. Tobacco 18
2. Poor diet/inactivity 15
3. Alcohol 4
4. Microbial agents 3
5. Toxic agents 2
6. Motor vehicles 2
7. Firearms 1
8. Sexual behaviour 1
9. Illicit drugs 1
Nutrients
Diet needed to maintain health and reduce risk of diseases requires a variety of food that
contain nutrients
oCarbohydrate
oLipids
oProteins
oVitamins
oMinerals
oWater
Nutrient Subclass
Essential vs. Nonessential
Macronutrient vs. Micronutrient
Energy producing vs. non-energy producing
Essential & nonessential
Essential nutrients Non essential nutrients
Body can’t make or cant
make enough
Obtained from diet
E.g. water
Body can make in
sufficient quantities
E.g. cholesterol
Macro- & Micronutrients
Macronutrients Micronutrients
Required in large amounts
(g)
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Protein
Water
Required in small amounts
(mg-µg)
Vitamins
Minerals
Energy containing nutrients
Energy containing
oCarbohydrate, lipids, protein, and alcohol
Non-energy containing
oVitamins, minerals and water
oAid or assist in releasing energy from energy containing nutrients
Energy
Capacity to do work
Expressed in units of kilocalories (kcal)
oAmount of energy (heat) required to raise 1 kg (1L) of water by 1°C at sea level
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