HLSC 1F90 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Dietary Reference Intake, Nutrient, Scurvy

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18 Feb 2016
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Nutritions:
Eating to live, or living to eat
46% of the class believe that they eat a healthy diet, 36% say they don't and 18% are not sure.
Nutrition: The science of food and the substances they contain how food nourishes our body and
how food influences our health.
•Provides us with energy an nutrients
•Used by the body for maintenance, growth and repair
Nutrition is one of several factors that contribute to health
•Physical health - combination of diet and physical activity
•spiritual, emotional. Social, occupational and physical health are the main types of
Health
Nutrition can prevent or reduce the risk for diseases. It can also cause the
disease.
Nutrition plays some role in osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and some types
of cancer
Disease with a strong nutritional component: top II diabetes, heart
disease, HBP and obesity
Nutritional de!ciency disease examples: scurvy, anemia
Importance of nutrition: Primary deficiency caused by inadequate diet or secondary deficiency
caused by problem inside the body: diet history and health history.
•Declining nutrient stores: laboratory tests
Abnormal functions side the body: laboratory tests
Physical (outward) signs and symptoms: physical examination and anthropometric
measures.
TOP TEN KILLERS OF CANADIANS
•Cancer, heart disease, strokes, accidents, chronic lung diseases, diabetes,
Alzheimer's, influenza, mental health, liver disease - 7/10 related to nutrition
•Risk factors: tobacco, poor diet/inactivity, alcohol, etc.
Diet needed to maintain health and reduce risk of diseases requires a variety of food
that contain nutrients
Nutrients: carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, water, minerals, proteins
-Nutrient subclasses
•Essential vs nonessential
•macronutrient va micronutrients
•energy producing vs non energy producing
-Essential nutrient: obtained from diet, body cant make or make enough, e.g. water,
Vitamin D.
-Non - essential nutrient: body can make sufficient amounts: cholesterol
-Macronutrient: required in large amounts (g): carbs, lipids, proteins, water
-Micronutrients: required in small amounts (mg/uL): vitamins and minerals
-Energy containing nutrients
Energy containing nutrients: carbs, lipids, protein and alcohol
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•Non energy containing: water, minerals, etc.
-Energy - capacity to do work
•expressed in units of kilocalories (kcal)
-the amount if energy required to raise 1kg of water by 1 degree C at sea level.
-Energy Scale
•Carbs - 4kcal/gram
•Lipids - 9 kcal/gram
•Protein - 4 kcal/gram
•Alcohol - 7 kcal/gram
-Carbohydrate
•simplest unit is glucose (essential)
•Major dietary sources are sugars (mono and disaccharides), starch (digestible
Polysaccharides), fibre (non-digestible polysaccharides). Sugar, Dairy, fruit and veg,
Grains
-Lipids
•simplest form is a fatty acid (two are considered essential, both are unsaturated)
•major dietary source are fats (animal triglycerides, mostly saturated)
•oils (plants triglycerides, mostly unsaturated except for tropical oils)
•cholesterol (sterol)
Protein
•simplest form are amino acids (9 are essential)
-Major dietary sources are
•animal (considered compete as it have sufficient amount of the essential amino
Acids
•Plant (considered incomplete as it is lacking one or two amino acids except
Soy, which are required for growth).
-Vitamins
•Subdivided into fat and water soluble (all 13 are essential).
•Vulnerable to destruction (e.g. light, radiation, heat).
-Blood health: K and E,
-
Bone health A and D
-Metabolism B and C
-Minerals
•Subdivided into major (>100mg a day)
•16 which are all essential
-Blood health: Fe, Na, K, Cl
-Bone health: Ca, Mg, P, F
-Metabolism: Zn, Cu, Mn, S, I
-Water
•IS A NUTRIENT AND IS ESSENTIAL
•supports many body functions
-Regulates body temp
-supports joints and brain / heart
-allows us to excrete
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