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Lecture 10

HLSC 1F90 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Clouding Of Consciousness, Tobacco Advertising, Adrenal Gland


Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
HLSC 1F90
Professor
Dr.Kelli-an Lawrance
Lecture
10

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HLSC 1F90
NOV 19th 2015
LEC 10
Who’s smoking what?
And who cares?
Conventional tobacco
Contraband tobacco
Marijuana
E-cigarettes
TOBACCO USE: a global health issue
Why should we be concerned about tobacco use?
Here are 8 reasons…
1. – Globally, tobacco use kills 6 million people/year
• Greater Toronto area (6.05 mill)
• Over 1/6 of Canada’s entire population (35.7 million)
– 1 person dies every 6 seconds due to tobacco
– Tobacco accounts for 1 in 10 adult deaths
½ current users will die of tobacco-related disease
2. By 2030 tobacco will kill 8 million people/year; mostly from low and middle income
countries
There are 1 billion smokers worldwide; nearly 80% of whom live in low- and
middle- income countries where burden of tobacco-related illness and death
heaviest – depriving families of income, raising the cost of health care, and
hindering economic development.
3.Until 1980s, U.S supplied tobacco; now 85% comes from the global south where
tobacco child labor and Green Tobacco Sickness are major problems
Green Tobacco Sickness: nicotine gets absorbed in extremely high levels when
being picked which makes them sick
4. The global share of agricultural land devoted to tobacco is <1%, but tobacco
agriculture accounts for 2-4% of global deforestation
About 3kg of wood to flue cure 1kg of tobacco
Tobacco growing accounted for 36% if all deforestation in Malawi, 1990-1995
Tobacco growing accounts for 3.5% of annual deforestation in some area of
Tanzania
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5.Cigarette manufacturing uses up to 6 kilometers of paper an hour to roll and package
cigarettes
6.Large amounts of pesticides must be used to grow tobacco; many global south workers
apply these extremely poisonous pesticides with no protection
Imidacloprid: blocks the central nervous system of insects highly toxic to birds,
fish, and bees
1,3-Dichloropropene: highly toxic soil fumigant; causes respiratory problems,
skin/eye irritation, kidney damage; (still used in U.S.)
Methyl Bromide: ozone-depleting soil fumigant now being phased out
7.Cigarettes butts are the most littered item in the world: 4.5 trillion butts are discarded
each year, killing millions of birds, fish and animals
8.Criminal black markets of contraband untaxed, unregulated, counterfeited, or stolen
tobacco products have emerged in Europe, South Asia, USA, Australia and Canada
Contraband tobacco undermines public health strategies to reduce tobacco-related
morbidity and mortality (esp. among price-sensitive populations of youth, low-
income earners, and socially-deprived groups)
In Canada, especially Ontario, the most widely available type of contraband
tobacco is “Native tobacco”
Tobacco Use
All forms of tobacco contain nicotine and tar (which includes countless chemical
additives)
Nicotine: is a highly addictive, psychoactive drug that affects the CNS and acts as a
stimulant
Smoking a conventional cigarette is quickest way for nicotine to reach brain (but
chewing tobacco delivers more nicotine)
Carbon monoxide: is a deadly, odorless gas that competes with oxygen
CO levels in smoke are 800X safe limits
Tar: is a chemical soup derived from the ingredients added to tobacco; tar (not nicotine)
causes cancer
There is no such thing as a “safer” cigarette
oContraband = brand names = generic/no name
oLight, mild, silver, slim = regular
oHookah = cigarettes
Whether “alternatives” are safer is questionable
oElectronic e-cigarettes??
oMarijuana??
E-Cigarettes
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