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Lecture 1

CHSC 4P99 Lecture 1: From Association to Causation.pdf

by OneClass279660 , Winter 2015
2 Pages
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Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
HLSC 4P99
Professor
Brent Faught
Lecture
1

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Cross sectional
1.
Cohort- the best epidemiological study type
2.
Case control
3.
Randomized clinical trial- we manipulate
4.
Which study design possesses the strongest evidence of causality?
And there was the joke that he told in first year...laaaaame
Ethological fallacy- when a correlation doesn't make sense
Prevention- the blood pressure cuff in the pharmacy in order to monitor blood pressure for
hypertension
Diagnosis- going to the doctors to deal with the problem
Treatment- taking aspirin to treat hypertension. The aspirin caused the change in the
patient's profile to something favourable
Physician's use of "cause"
Epis are more careful to use cause, always trying to figure out the cause
Physicians know the causes of the diseases that they know
Physician versus epidemiologist
What is Cause?
Koch's Postulates of Causation- 1882
Every disease has an organism
1.
Must be able to isolate and grow the organism
2.
Upon inoculation, a susceptible host must get disease
3.
Example: HIV and AIDS
Single cause single disease
Pros:
Web of causation (multiple cause, one disease)
Single cause-multiple disease
Non-applicable in today's medicine except..
Cons:
Organism must be retrieved and infected host
4.
Single and Multiple Causes
Proximity of Cause to Effect
*See picture in phone*
Interaction- how two different risk factors play into getting to the disease
Antagonism- when the combine effect is less than the sum of the individual causes
Synergism- when the combine effect is greater than the sum of the individual causes
Interplay of Multiple Causes
Association and Cause
We need reliability and validity
If the test is valid it's reliable
If the test is reliable, it may not be valid
Control the selection bias- randomization (controls distribution)
Control the measurement bias- blinding
Control chance- we can't eliminate, we can minimize it by increasing sample size-
Control confounding- the cofounder falsely strengthens the correlation. Control using matching or
*See picture on phone*
From Association to Causation
January-13-15
2:05 PM
CHSC 4P99 Page 1

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Description
From Association to Causation January-13-15 2:05 PM Which study design possesses the strongest evidence of causality? 1. Cross sectional 2. Cohort- the best epidemiological study type 3. Case control 4. Randomized clinical trial- we manipulate And there was the joke that he told in first year...laaaaame Ethological fallacy- when a correlation doesn't make sense What is Cause? • Terminology- etiology, pathogenesis, ect. • Physician's use of "cause" ○ Prevention- the blood pressure cuff in the pharmacy in order to monitor blood pressure for hypertension ○ Diagnosis- going to the doctors to deal with the problem ○ Treatment- taking aspirin to treat hypertension. The aspirin caused the change in the patient's profile to something favourable • Physician versus epidemiologist ○ Epis are more careful to use cause, always trying to figure out the cause ○ Physicians know the causes of the diseases that they know Single and Multiple Causes • Koch's Postulates of Causation- 1882 1. Every disease has an organism 2. Must be able to isolate and grow the organism 3. Upon inoculation, a susceptible host must get disease 4. Organism must be retrieved and infected host ○ Example: HIV and AIDS ○ Pros:  Single cause singledisease ○ Cons:  Web of causation (multiplecause, one disease)  Single cause-multiple disease  Non-applicable in today's medicine except.. Proximity of Cause to Effect *See picture in phone* Interplay of Multiple Causes • Interaction- how two di
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