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Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes.docx

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Brock University
Health Sciences
Brent Faught

CHSC 1F90 November 6, 2012 Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes Week #9 CVD: Some good news! - Rates decrease CVD (32% from 47% in 1979) - Improvements in:  Diagnosis  Emergency and medical care  Drugs  Public awareness  Prevention Which is the largest artery in the body? AORTIC ARTERY; 2.5 – 3 inches in diameter Facts - Red = oxygenated blood - Depleting = deoxygenated blood - Radial artery for bypass surgery - Great saphenous vein for bypass surgery - Oxygenated blood is carried in arties - Deoxygenated blood is carried in veins - Largest to smallest size: 1. Aorta 2. Arteries 3. Arterials 4. Capillaries 5. Venuals 6. Veins 7. Venacava What has considerable amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide at the same time? CAPILLARIES The Heart - Heart is made of 4 chambers; left and right ventricle, left and right atria - *** how blood passes through heart diagram - We breathe to get rid of carbon dioxide that is in deoxygenated blood - The pulmonary artery is the only artery that carries deoxygenated blood ** - Desire to get rid of carbon dioxide - Mitral valve = bicuspid valve - Space between left and right ventricle is called septum CHSC 1F90 November 6, 2012  BLUE BABIES: When kids have undeveloped heart (undeveloped septum) deoxygenated blood from right ventricle pours into left ventricle and then is put out into the body by aorta which is a problem considering the blood is not yet oxygenized meaning the skin will appear blue Types of CVD - Atherosclerosis  Plaque that develops  Coronary - Arteriosclerosis  Hardening of the arteries  Loose elasticity over time (age, plaque development)  Type of atherosclerosis - Coronary heart disease  Heart attack aka myocardium infarction (MI)  Deprived the muscle that contracts heart of oxygen and nutrients causing a heart attack  Ischemia: muscle still working without oxygen (angina pectoris is term for the pain caused by lack of oxygen in heart)  Beta blockers etc… slows heart down while going into hyperactive states - Stroke  TIA’S usually go unnoticed; precursor to a full blown stroke (minor stroke)  Hypertension: high blood pressure  High blood pressure: two numbers, first number; systole; is the pressure on arteries when the heart contracts, second number; diastole; pressure on heart when heart is at rest (120/80) when blood pressure is 140/90; clinical hyper state - Hypertension:  Secondary hypertension: Tumors increase blood pressure - Other forms of CVD  Arrhythmia o Arrhythmia: irregular heart beats o Good heart rate at resting condition/minute: 60-80 (best time is early in morning) o More than 100 beats per minute is bad  Congestive heart failure  Congenital heart disease  Rheumatic heart disease o Streptococcal Effects of Stroke on the Body Left Brain Injury Right-Brain Injury Paralyzed right side Paralyzed left side Speech language deficits Spatial perceptual deficits CHSC 1F90 November 6, 2012 Slow, cautious behavioral style Quick, impulsive behavioral style Memory deficits Memory deficits Development of Atherosclerosis 1. A blood-borne irritant injuries or scratches the arterial wall exposing the underlying connective tissue 2. Blood platelets and circulating immune cells known as monocytes are then attracted to the site of the injury and adhere to the exposed connective tissue. The platelets release a substance referred to as platelet-derived growth factor (PDgf0 that promotes migration of smooth muscle cells from the media to the intima 3. A plaque which is basically composed of smooth muscle cells, connective tissue, and debris, forms at the site of injury 4. As the plaque grows, it narrows the arterial opening and impedes blood flow. Lipids in the blood, specifically low density lipoprotein cholesterol 9LDL-C), are deposited in the plaque, when pieces of the plaque break loose they can start clots that lodge in other parts of the vessel - When vessels expand to inflammation it may cause a lesion (take half an Aspirin every day). Aspirin is an anti-inflammatory; your body is on constant attack every day because of inflammation. Best way to decrease cardiovascular disease! Blood Vessel Disorders - Thrombus  Blood clot - Embolus  Plaque that dislodges and travels through blood stream - Aneurysm  When a vessel is weakened and bulges (can break; internal bleeding); people that suffer from HBP CVD: Risk Factors Controllable Uncontrollable Hypertension
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