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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 Birth Control, Pregnancy, and Childbirth.docx

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Health Sciences
Brent Faught

Lecture 7 – Birth Control, Pregnancy, and Child Birth th October 30 2012 Fertility – Successful reproduction/conception Fertility rates in Canada vs. USA Canada (ages 15-19) – 14 Conceptions / 1000 Women USA (ages 15-19) – 42 Conceptions / 1000 Women Forms of Contraception What is Contraception? The ability to protect from conception  There are two different forms of Contraception: Reversible and Permanent Reversible Contraception Description Male Condom  Prevents STD’s for both men and women  98% effective if used properly Birth Control  Many different applications but for the most part increases estrogen and progestin in females  Micronor- increases progestin only and is taken in pill form  Nuva Ring- Increases both estrogen and progestin and is a ring inserted into the vagina (works for 3 weeks)  Advantage- Spermicides (not as effective)  Synthetic drugs- Increases estrogen and progestin (works for 3 months)  Patch- like a nicotine patch, increases estrogen and progestin through the skin Diaphragm  Available over the counter  Only kept in place for as long as prescribed  If kept in vagina longer than required, bacteria can form and cause Toxic Shock Syndrome in the female Cervical Cap  Fitted by a physician  Similar to the diaphragm but smaller in size Sponge  Inserted in the vagina, and contains spermicides Female Condom  Like the male condom, although inserted into the vagina and catches sperm  Also protects males from STD’s Male Pill  Taken orally  Decreases sperm count  Not a perfected science, some men experience future problems in conception (becoming impatient)  Contains “Gossypol” which comes from cotton IUD  Inter uterine devises  Oldest contraceptive devises With drawl  Once you start you can’t stop “Coitus Interuptus” (myth)  All about timing Fertility Awareness 1. Calendar Method Methods (FAM)  Longest menstrual period  Shortest menstrual period  28 days regular  Shortest cycle – 18 days  Day 1 is menstrual flow  Longest – 11 days  Go through 4 phases  Menstrual phase  Proliferative phase (increased levels of FSH and LH)  Ovulation phase  Secretory phase 2. Cervical Mucous  Increase in gelatinous mucous indicates the start of ovulation 3. Temperature  An increase in core temperature indicates ovulation (increase of 0.28 degrees Celsius) With the reversible methods we can come to some conclusions based on various Canadian studies on unintended pregnancy outcomes while using reversible birth control. Managing Fertility (unintended pregnancy with reversible methods) Type of Method Typical use (%) Perfect use (%) Abstinence 0 0 Male condom 15 2 Female condom 21 5 With drawl 27 4 No Method 85 85 Permanent Forms of Contraception include: Type Description Tubal Ligation  A procedure for females  The cutting, tying, or banding of fallopian tubes  Cutting sperm access off from entering uterus Hysterectomy  A female procedure  The removal of the uterus  Not the preferred method, usually done in the case of uterine damage  Taken vaginally or in C-Section Vasectomy  A male procedure  A small incision is made on the scrotum and vas deferens are cut or cauterized  Not a long procedure, outpatient Managing Fertility (unintended pregnancy with permanent methods) Type of Method Typical use (%) Perfect use (%) Female Sterilization 0.5 0.5 Male Sterilization 0.15 0.1 Abortion – Life vs. Choice  Abortion is legal in Canada  Pay
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