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Lecture 10

Lecture 10 Cancer.docx

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Health Sciences
Brent Faught

Lecture 10 – Cancer November 13th 2012 What is Cancer?  Abnormal cell growth and spread  Possible exam question*** Sarah has cancer, it has spread from the uterus to her ovaries to her lungs and finally to her brain, what cancer do you think she has? Uterine because the type of cancer depends on the place of origin.  Cancer is the #1 disease Canadians die from  Based on current incident rates: - 40% Canadian women will develop cancer in their lifetime - 45% Canadian men will develop cancer in their lifetime  Based on current mortality rates: - 24% Canadian women will die from cancer - 29% Canadian men will die of cancer - ¼ Canadian approximately die of cancer  Cancer is a result of our choices/actions/genetics  After the age of 70, we have a lower success rate of surviving cancer Cancer Detection  Screening or Diagnosing ***  DRE (finger)  PSA (blood) Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Men  #1 in men is prostate cancer  As the detection rates increase, death rate decreases  Lung cancer has a high death rate Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Women  #1 in women is breast cancer  As detection rates increase, death rates decrease  Lung Cancer has high death rate What is the #1 way of cancer prevention? *** on exam  Early Detection Cancerous Cells Normal Cells Grow/replicate/repair Neoplasm Biopsy Tumor Benign Malignant (Non-Cancerous) (Cancerous) * Instead of growing to a certain extent, replicating and repairing; cancerous cells develop a neoplasm Spreads through the categorized as a tumor. This tumor is circulatory system and Infiltration tested through biopsy to determine lymphatic system its status as either benign or (Metastosis) Expansion malignant. These tumors will spread through the body if not treated through the circulatory system and lymphatic system. Spread will be dependent on the status of tumor; through expansion (benign) or infiltration (malignant) Cancer Causing Theories  Error in cell reproduction (spontaneous errors) “Mutation”  External carcinogenic agents (80% of cases)  Oncogene theory that you are born with the cancer gene (10% of cases)  Oncogene + Carcinogenic agents = Proto-oncogene Suspected Causes of Cancer  X-ray, B-rays, asbestos (Environmental factors)  Stress, depression, low immune response (Social factors)  Sodium nitrates (Chemicals in food)  Genetic predisposition (Biological factors)  DES in pregnant woman, where female child gets cancer (Medical factors)  HPV, herpes, hepatitis B and C (Viral factors) Classifications of Cancer: Type of Cancer Description Carcinomas  This is the most common type of cancer  Spreads through the circulatory system and lymphatic system  Effects epithelial tissue  A solid tumor mass
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