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Lecture 11

Lecture 11 Epidemiology.docx

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Brock University
Health Sciences
Brent Faught

Lecture 11 – Epidemiology November 20th 2012 What is Epidemiology?  The study of what is common amongst the people  Father of epidemiology: John Snow John Snow  1854 case of the broad street pump  Diminished the outbreak of cholera through the water system  Investigated what was common amongst the people dying = Broad St. pump  Found out that the Tams river was the source; people where dumping feces and waste into the river creating bacteria in water stream  Solution: Took the handle off of the pump to stop the spread Pioneers of Epidemiology ***making decisions based on data! Pioneer Contribution Hippocrates  Hippocratic Oath (Father of modern medicine)  Developed the method of having a hot illness, cold remedy and when cold illness, hot remedy Ramiazzini Anna Wessel Williams  Developed the Rabies vaccine Florence Nightingale  Founder of modern nursing and hygiene  Established a standard in infection control due to the spread of infections in hospitals without proper hygienic methods Koch  Koch’s postulates  Developed rules to treat infectious diseases  Developed the method of taking samples of blood to determine diseases Kelsey  Stopped the sales of Thalidomide Epidemiological Triad Host: Any living thing (The target population that can become ill. Agent: The method contributing to the spread. Environment: Mechanism that makes the agent work (unhygienic environment) and can also be economic status or urbanization Infectious Epidemiology  Establishing “etiology”  Population characteristics (who’s getting ill)  Assumptions (Hypothesis)  Tests (Taking blood and such to confirm disease)  Cultural considerations (Religion)  Conclusions (what is the original host?) Non-Infectious Epidemiology  The less you make the more often you are at risk of illness  Income determines risk of illness  Example of triad method; host-patients, agent-whatever illness, environment- household income *** Study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states in cohorts, and the application of this study to control of health problems Components of Distribution  Who, When, Where  WHO- People getting the illness  WHEN- Following illness over time  WHERE- Number of people in different parts of the country that are ill
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