Chapter #15: Healthcare Systems
Types of Health Care: higher life
expectancy Safety and Quality in Health Care:
• How safe is the care provided?
• Adverse Event Study:
○ Definition: an unintended injury or complication that is caused by
healthcare management, rather than by the individual's underlying disease,
and that leads to death, disability, or prolonged hospital stay.
○ ex. length of hospital stays, dosage/medication errors, secondary infections.
○ Blaming the individual is the easy way out.
Leadership: need to show responsibility.
○ 7.5% of Canadians receiving care in Canadian hospitals experience an
○ 36.9% reported to be preventable.
○ The Apology Act: March 11th, Bill 108. The Act was designed to enhance
the dispute resolution process by allowing parties to communicate genuine
compassion, sorrow and regret without having to worry that such actions will
form allegations of liability or be held as evidence in later civil court
Dennis Quiad: Heprin was given instead of Heplock (the children's
version); the child in question bled uncontrollably.
• TaLl LeTtErInG is now used to reduce adverse events • Tommy Douglass
○ helped to develop Canadian Medicare
○ said that those of age who have a problem getting medical insurance (&
chronic suffers) are those who need it the most.
• Canadian Health Act (1984):
○ Public administrated: non-profit entity, empowered by the government of
○ Comprehensive: only "essential" is covered
○ Universality: 100% of population should be covered
debate: meaning of 100%? card carrying matter? citizenship matter?
○ Accessibility: no billing, extra barriers
○ Portability: location in Canada shouldn't affect the coverage.
• The Canadian Health Care System:
○ adopting determinacy of health framework
○ shift from institutionally based care to integrated community based models