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Lecture 2

Week 23 Envirnmental Health.docx

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Health Sciences
Madeline Law

Week 23: Environmental Health CHSC 1P90 25 March 2014 Environmental Health  • You are responsible for all the material in Chapter 13 • In class: o Impact of global population growth on our environment and health o Definition and sources of environment pollutants that affect human health o Impact of climate change on our environment and health • Determinates are whether you recycle, how you get to places and how whether you vote or not Environment & human Health  • Human health is fundamentally related to the health of the plane t o Human can become ill, or die from:  Ingesting food, water or dust that is polluted  Inhaling ait contaminated with toxins  Coming into contact with polluted water, soil, objects o Contamination can come from:  Industrialized agricultural & manufacturing processes  Reliance on fossil fuel for powering machinery & vehicles, heating houses, cooking food, etc.  Poor waste management practices (coupled with excessive packaging/ poor sanitation) o We’re not doing much for not being able to not contaminate the plane t and what we’re doing o Overpopulation  Oct. 2011: global population reached 7 billion • 1 2 billion … 123 year years • 67 billion … 12 years  2050: 9.2 billion  2083: 10 billion Week 23: Environmental Health CHSC 1P90 25 March 2014  Growth is due to fertility & life expectancy • Fertility rates are falling slowly, but infant mortality rates are falling quickly • Global fertility: 4.63 now; 2.5 in 2050  Percent of the world population these countries had and will have , it can be seen that 1950 2150 Europe 25 5 Asia 50 57 Africa 10 25 Africa is going to be hit very hard as they will be experiencing a very hard hit from the weather and as they will change the amount of people living in Africa. Meat production and beef production has gone up by a lot as the meat needs have gone up as a lot of families that become wealthy have been able to afford the meat now, and now the needs for meat have gone up and they are needed more and more now and also because it is very healthy to eat and also very high in protein and this is what increases the chances of meat production and also how the deceases that cows have are getting transferred to people who eat them. • For the past 5-6 decades, food production in developed countries has depended upon: o Clearing indigenous plants & trees (and their associated flora and fauna) from larger and larger swaths of land o Farming a single species of animal or plant with highly mechanized processes, and no variation in commodity from year to year o Using petroleum-based pesticides and genetic modification to manage consistent, uniform, growth plants, feeds, and/ or animals o Replenishing the fertility of the soil with petroleum-based fertilizers (or allowing soil to die) • This system of food production is moving into developing nations • This system may be destroying the biodiversity on which it depends and in turn, negatively impacting human health… Week 23: Environmental Health CHSC 1P90 25 March 2014 Biodiversity is fundamental to… • Health of soil  Fertile soil has high levels of soil organic matter (SOM) • SOM holds nutrients and trace elements important to plant growth, prevents nutrients leaching, supports organic acids that make minerals available to plants  Diverse plant matter and sunshine enhance SOM  Monocultures deplete SOM, reduce fertility of the soil, lead to reliance on synthetic inputs into the soil – primarily petroleum based fertilizers which harm/kill micro-organisms and invertebrates in the soil • Health of contiguous land & water o When biodiversity (in crops and/or ground cover) exists, soil maintains “natural” fertility and resistance to pests; local water supplies are unadulterated o In monocultures, layers of synthetic chemical are used and land is bare between crop seasons…  Leech into local water supplies  Rise to dangerous levels in the soils  Impact flora and fauna • Health of humans o Biodiversity is needed for sustainable food systems o Because industrial farming reduces biodiversity, it:  Depletes the inputs on which food production depends  Triggers a vicious cycle of increased use of synthetic inputs and reduced biodiversity o Without sufficient biodiversity, the current food systems may collapse… clearly this would be detrimental to human health Water Pollution  • Water pollution can come from 2 sources: Week 23: Environmental Health CHSC 1P90 25 March 2014 o Point-source pollutants enter a waterway at a specific point (e.g., pipe, culvert, ditch) o Nonpoint-source pollutants seep into the water from broad areas of land (e.g., chemical run-off from farmer’ fields, septic tanks leaks, landfill sites) • Most contaminants (98% bacterial, 80%+ synthetic) come from nonpoint sources • To be healthy, the water courses must be clean. • Therefore: o Be active in political processes that regulate water o Practice good personal water management (e.g., don’t dump household wastes, don’t overuse water) • These steps apply to developed and developing countries Land Pollution  • Land pollution is a serious human by-product in developed and developing countries Developed Developing Regulation of waste Strict Relaxed Amount of waste Higher lower • Developed countri
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