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CHSC 2F95 lecture 2.docx

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Health Sciences
B Jeynes

CHSC 2F95 Lecture # 2: Connective Tissues: - Essential and of multiple forms - Cartilage and bone (forms of connective tissue = multifunctional and associated with muscular skeletal system (movement) - Bone = living active tissue - Articulations: where 2 or more bones meet - Joints = site of movement - Connection tissue connects body to sources (food, animals,etc) Ex: blood and lymph Functions: - Structural (supports, packing, joining, special blood) - Nutritional - Defence (cells, ground substance) - Storage Repair Components: - Made up of cells - Fibres (made of cells) - Ground substance (surrounds fibres/cells) - Tissue fluid (contained in ground substance= mostly water) - Matrix = what cells are imbedded in Cell Types: - Fixed cells: - Fibroblasts (reproduce themselves, produce CT fibres) - Fibrocytes ( maintain fibres/matrix) - Fixed macrophages (responsible for phagocytosis: gobble up pathogens/garbage) - Adipocytes (fat cells) - Mesenchynal cells (source for other cells: differentiate) - Melanocytes (produce melcomman: pigment to protect us from ultra violet rays) - Wandering cells: - Free macrophages (phagocytosis) - Mast cells (stimulate flammantory responses) - Lymphocytes (immune response cells) - Neutrophils and Esnophils (phagocytic cells and infection/tissue/injury protection) Cartilage: (functions) - Support (soft tissues) ex: respiratory - Smooth sliding surface (occurs at most joints) - Model (for future bones) - Growth (longitudinal in bone at epithyseal plates) - Intervertrbral cushioning (support weight of vertebrae) - (types:) - Hayaline (skinny) : fetal skeleton- epiphysical plate at articular surfaces for support (most common) - Elastic: external ear- auditory canal-lary) - Fibrous: intervertrbral discs –symphysis pubis stemoclavicular joint – TMJ (tempermenticular joint) 2 ways cartilage grows: 1. Appositional growth (add cartilage to others) 2. Intersitial growth (growth within cartilage) - Pericardium: (outside of cartilage) divide, produce matrix - Chrondocytes: cells and cartilage - Collagen, elastic, reticular fibres - Avascular (no blood vessels in cartilage) - Diffusion through matrix cartilage gets blood at perimeter perichordrium - Limited strength/bendable - Interstitial and appositional growth - Limited repair capability (can sew on it to place it got ripped but never will be the same strength) Bone development: - Ossification =bone development - 2 ways it occurs: 1. Intramembranous (from mesenchymal tissue) 2. Indochrodral (from within cartilage) Bone Growth: - 2 ways: 1. Longitudiality (femur and thigh bone) emphyseal plates = cartilage 2. Appositional (beneath periosteum Bone components: - Cells: osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts - Matrix: collagen fibres (tensile strengt
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