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Lecture 3

CHSC 3P93 Lecture 3 - Stress.docx

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Brock University
Health Sciences
Paul Leblanc

Nutrition Lecture 3 – STRESS Disease  stress  injury  altered health Cellular injury - Adaptation – altered structure or change in a steady state - Injury – cell cant adapt and critical cell function may be impaired o Injury has a threshold above this there is damage o Can be reversible or irreversible depending on dose intensity and cellular vulnerability o Ex/Acute severe UV exposure results in a sunburn and epidermal injury, this can be repaired - Dose intensity – duration and severity pf cellular exposure to stress o Ex/interruption of coronary blood supply <1-2mins is reversible - Cell vulnerability o Inherent vulnerability of cells to a given stress o More specialized cells are more vulnerable o Ex/skeletal muscles can tolerate interrupted blood flow longer than the cardiac muscle - Vulnerable targets of injury o Cell membrane o Energy metabolism o Protein synthesis o Genes o Because most are interconnected injury to one will affect others - Disease producing cellular injury and stress o Hypoxia – CVD, anemia, respiratory disease o Chemical – alcohol, diabetes o Infection – HIV o Immune reactions – autoimmune o Nutritional imbalance – obesity, iron-deficiency o Genetic derangements – cancer, crohns disease - Adaptive response o Atrophy – decrease in cell size -- sarcopenia from AIDS o Hypertrophy – increase in cell size – cardiac hypertrophy from hypertension o Hyperplasia – increase in cell # o Metaplasia – reversible change in cell structure o Dysplasia -- pathological change in cell structure and/or function (e.g. precursor to cancer) - Necrosis o Cell homicide due to pathological stimuli, injures surrounding tissue - Apoptosis o Cell is sacrificed to avoid damage to the surrounding cells Immune System - Network of cells and tissues o Lymphocytes – WBC o Lymphoid tissue – thymus, bone marrow o Lymphatic disposal – spleen, tonsils, adenoids, lymph nodes - Natural immunity o Born with it, innate/nonspecific o Physical barrier – GI tract, mucus, skin o Defensive proteins o Phagocytes – neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages o Natural killer cell - Slide 15 nonspecific/innate diagram - Acquired Immunity -- specific o Recognition, immune memory o Humoral immunity – cell secretions mount defence – B cells (communicate to respond)gulf invading bacteria  B cells present the antibodies to the T cells o Cellular immunity – cells mount defence – T cells  T cells engulf bacteria o This is built up as we are exposed to them – future exposure allow a faster response o Reason for immunization - Soluble mediators o Communication b/w immune cells o Cytokines  Leutokines – lymphocytes and other cells  Interleukins (IL) – cytokines, lymphokines, chemokines  Interferon (INF) – cytokines that regulate immune system against viruses  Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) – cytokines that induces programed cell death apoptosis - Inflammation o Nonspecific response to infection or tissue injury o contain and destroy infectious agents to prevent further tissue damage by creating a barrier o Slide 21 diagram of inflammation from sliver o Allows all resources to accumulate in an area to fight infection o After inflammation (hrs.-days)  Liver produces acute phase proteins  C reactive proteins , blood clotting proteins  Regulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines o Table 9.4 progression of normal wound healing  Inflammatory – 1-6 days  Proliferative – begins 3-5 days  Finish o Wound healing  Energy – 30-35 kcal/kg body mass  Proteins – 0.4 g/kg more than non-wounds • Could be as high 1.5 g/kg body mass  Lipids – focus around essential  Fluids – maintain hydration  Vitamins – vitamin A & C – for collagen formation  Minerals – zinc & iron – collagen formation o Nutrition and the immune system  Altered by the absence or presence of nutrients  Absence – immunonutrition o Immunonutrition  Unable to mount an immune response • Genetic • Acquired – hiv & cancer, burns, anergy  Ability of nutrients to alter the activity of immune cells • Nutrient availability or choice • Lifespan specific o Prenatal – immune system develop o Postnatal --- immune system function o Immunonutrients  Glutamine, arginine • Conditional essential during inflammation and stress • Primary fuel for immunocompetent cells – glutamine • Inhibit immunosuppression and improve nitrogen balance – arginine  antioxidant vitamins • Vit A,C,E • Antioxidant defence to prevent oxidative stress  trace elements • Zinc, copper, and selenium • Antioxidant enzyme cofactors that are important for the enzyme function  n3 fatty acid • Anti-inflammatory • Counterbalance inflammatory n6 eicosanoids • N6 is an inflammatory response and easy to get in dietary food • This promotes an inflammatory state because not as much n3 is available to count
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