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Canada (492,560)
Brock University (11,830)
HLSC 3P93 (16)
Lecture 5


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Brock University
Health Sciences
Paul Leblanc

LECTURE 5 – CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Diet and Health -- % total deaths -- Cancer 29.8 Heart disease 20.7 Strokes 5.9 Cardiovascular Disease • Hypertension, Atherosclerosis, Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD), Heart Failure (HF) Hypertension • Memorize chart • Leading risk for death globally • Blood pressure is a balance between cardiac output and peripheral resistance • ↑ either or both will elevate blood pressure • 2ndary hypertension -- abnormalities in organs (i.e. kidney) or hormones (i.e. aldosterone) that regulate blood pressure • Primary or essential hypertension -- no identifiable cause -- 90-95% of all hypertension cases o contributing factors – age, genetics, obesity, salt (sensitivity), smoking • Forces heart to work harder (weaken heart) with resulting increased risk of Arrhythmias, heart failure, sudden death • Hypertension – Treatment o reduce risk of CVD and renal disease o life-style changes that ↓ BP o Strategies  drugs  weight reduction -- BMI < 35, waist circumference good predictor, as little as 5kg significantly improves BP  improved nutrition  increase exercise • Form of evidence supporting hypertension treatment -- K & K 2013 o Robust evidence -- body weight, sodium, alcohol, potassium, DASH diet o Inconclusive – cholesterol, Calcium, magnesium • Sodium - most often related to hypertension • Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) • changes in BP with potassium, magnesium, calcium, cholesterol, SFA • 459 adults with hypertension (2/3 members of racial or ethnic minority) • 8 week intervention phase • combination diet (high fruits and vegetables combined with low fat) had greatest BP improvements • get DASH diet chart vs canadas food guide Atherosclerosis • Loss of vascular elasticity (hardening of the vessels) o family history – endothelial function and/or cholesterol homeostasis o diabetes – AGE damage (refer to Energy Balance and Body Weight lecture) o smoking – oxidative stress o obesity – more so for abdominal rather than subcutaneous fat deposition o dyslipidemia– ↑ LDL, cholesterol, and TG and ↓ HDL; oxidation of LDL • Risk factor Criteria o Waist circumference - > 102 cm (men) or >88 cm (women) o HDL (mM) < 1 (men) or < 1.3 (women) o BP ≥ 130 systolic or ≥ 85 diastolic • Treatments include drugs, surgery, lifestyle changes • Lifestyle recommendations (Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes – TLC) o healthy body weight, physical activity, no tobacc
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