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Lecture 1

CHSC 4P99 Lecture 1: From Association to Causation.pdf

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Brock University
Health Sciences
Brent Faught

From Association to Causation January-13-15 2:05 PM Which study design possesses the strongest evidence of causality? 1. Cross sectional 2. Cohort- the best epidemiological study type 3. Case control 4. Randomized clinical trial- we manipulate And there was the joke that he told in first year...laaaaame Ethological fallacy- when a correlation doesn't make sense What is Cause? • Terminology- etiology, pathogenesis, ect. • Physician's use of "cause" ○ Prevention- the blood pressure cuff in the pharmacy in order to monitor blood pressure for hypertension ○ Diagnosis- going to the doctors to deal with the problem ○ Treatment- taking aspirin to treat hypertension. The aspirin caused the change in the patient's profile to something favourable • Physician versus epidemiologist ○ Epis are more careful to use cause, always trying to figure out the cause ○ Physicians know the causes of the diseases that they know Single and Multiple Causes • Koch's Postulates of Causation- 1882 1. Every disease has an organism 2. Must be able to isolate and grow the organism 3. Upon inoculation, a susceptible host must get disease 4. Organism must be retrieved and infected host ○ Example: HIV and AIDS ○ Pros:  Single cause singledisease ○ Cons:  Web of causation (multiplecause, one disease)  Single cause-multiple disease  Non-applicable in today's medicine except.. Proximity of Cause to Effect *See picture in phone* Interplay of Multiple Causes • Interaction- how two di
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