Strategies for Successful Intercultural Communication.docx

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Strategies for Successful Intercultural
Motivations In Communication
H.P. Grice, in his discussion of linguistic communication in English (1975), argued that, when
people communicate, they do so with the intent of transmitting correct information. Any
perceived deviance from this willingness is therefore meaningful, and an intentional form of
Maxims, or norms of communication:
o Quantity: make effort to supply appropriate amount of information ( just enough, but
not too much)
o Quality: make an effort to supply right kind of information (true and can be supported
with evidence)
o Relevance: effort to stay on topic
o Manner: effort to maintain appropriate style to the conversation
Cooperation Principle:
Make your conversational contribution such as is required, at the stage which it occurs, but the
accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged.
o Quoted from Bowe and Martin, 2007, p. 10
Grice`s cooperation principle can be extrapolated to intercultural communication to argue that
when one engages in intercultural communication, one is willingly (intentionally)
communicating. Thus, any difference from this expectation is consequently interpreted as
The differences that create the situation of intercultural communication magnify the normal
process of othering - the identification of those who are different as very different, almost as
objects to be examined or manipulated.
Connects to the concepts of emic and etic perception and the inability to share experience.
A misapprehension of the nature of the other magnifies the large cultural differences, problematizing
the experience of intercultural communication.
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Ethics as difference:
Ethics or value systems vary widely across cultures|:
- Eurocentric ethics stress autonomy, justice, responsibility and care
African ethics stress "the well
- Buddhist ethics see the individual as responsible for his or her own actions and values "patience,
compassion, self-sacrifice, kindness, and love" (pg. 42)
- Hindu ethics focus on "ending human suffering through active intervention" and sees the path takes as
- Mindful engagement in intercultural communication allows the interlocutors the opportunity to
address these large differences productively.
- Applying Grice's cooperation principle focuses on the communication difficultues creasted bty these
values differfences and examine them as a way of facilitating communication.
Approaches to Intercultural Communication
Skills-based approach
o Generally culture-specific and teach responses to particular situations
o Potentially useful if
o Skills related to the maintenance of slef (mental, health, psychological well-being, stress
reduction, feelings of self-confidence)
o Skills related to the foestering of relationships with host nationals
o Cognitive skills that promote a correct perception of the host environment and its social
Military Approach
o Self Awareness. Ability to use information about yourself in puzzling situations, to
understand how others see you and use that information to cope with difficult
o Self Respect. Self-confidence or due respect for yourself, your character, and your
o Adaptablilty. How fast you adjust to unfamiliar environments or to norms other than
your own
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