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psych notes 3.docx

10 Pages

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Tami Friedman

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Determinations of success in the college student psychologists have decided to study college students as college students, what is special about this time of their life? Developmental pschologists were concerned with young kids in the 1800s. most colleges had 2 different courses in this area up until 1970. Later on, there was a big shift in developmental psychology it doesnt just occur when young, but through all phases of life. Life span developmental psychology. A lot of work on old people, does memory, thinking skills deteriorate? Physical changes. In the 2000s a large number of psychologists started studying college students as college students. Why did they do this? Level of sophistication increases with age. Everyday you get older, smarter, and more competent. Very small changes everyday add up to a big change overall. Direct relationship. in another model, there are times in your life where this isnt true. Something happens to cause dramatic increases in sophistication in a short period of time. not a direct relationship, graph looks a little more jagged. Dramatic change in sophistication. An example of this would be being able to speak for the first time. Another big example would be being able to walk for the first time. Both of these examples demonstrate a big life change, thus supporting the jagged graph model. Peer relationships are also another step in this process, puberty, death of a spouse, retirement. For the first time, people have suggested that going to college is analogous to this model, you will experience a pretty dramatic change of life in a short period of time. there are a bunch of challenges that are important and you will have to face them head on like you have never before. Intellectually, career choices. These decisions are very important, because the time crunch is getting more and more tight. The concerns are taken more seriously than they ever have up until this point. Philosophy of life questions. Decisions become more prevalent. The cost of making a mistake later in life goes up dramatically. If you make a mistake, you will have to live with that mistake for the rest of your life. Academic achievement in college if you study freshmen who are here the first week, many of them will give general and vague answers. Get a good job or be successful. Other people will give really specific answers on what they want to do and where they want to go. These concerns become more extreme and specific as time goes on. Seniors and juniors are more grade conscious than freshmen and sophomores. They are also more concerned with learning and mastering the material. Determinant of success among college students 1. General intelligence 2. Conceptual or theoretical relationship universities choose students they want, and students chose the school that they want. 3. Restriction of range if you have 2 variables that are strongly correlated, and if you restrict the range on one of the variables, then the correlation basically disappears. We are a homogenous group in level of intelligence, we are all very similar. Intelligence is thought of as a necessary, but not sufficient condition for success. Good grades, progress through curriculum, happy with school = successful Necessary to have a certain level of intelligence in order to succeed Confidence and self- doubt important in several respecets. Everybody has these things in combinations both good and bad students. Problems arise when things get out of balance. Most successful students were marked by 2 things: have a little doubt, fear anxiety, knowing that they can screw up. A little anxiety gets you to focus and motivation. Most successful students have these and confidence that they could succeed with the appropriate effort. 2. Most successful students learn from feedback that they receive and pay close attention to it. They are capable. Fear and anxiety are balanced out by the confidence. Unsuccessful students: 3 patterns that come up quite a bit. 1. Overconfidence refers to the fact that some people have way too much confidence and little self-doubt. Dont take demand seriously enough. They dont learn from the feedback that they receive. They always find some excuse for their failure other than themselves. Very convinced that they are smart, talented, and so good. 2. Self-handicapping too much doubt and not enough confidence. Generally occurs when people have had great success in the past, but they are afraid that they will not be able to duplicate success in the future. Involves arranging the situation that if you do succeed you can take success. But also arranges it in a way that you can blame it on something else. 3. Defensive pessimism- good grades and success in the past, but now sometimes they are afraid to duplicate that success in the future. Afraid of failure in the future. Night before exam stay up all night/day arranged it so that if you do well you look good, but if you do poorly you can blame it on something else like staying up all night. By arranging situation in this way, you hurt probability that you will succeed. Comes from too much doubt. Exaggerate everything negative about themselves, directly contradicted with reality. They also typically exaggerate everything that could possibly go wrong, orient life around everything that could possibly go wrong. What would I do if my alarm clock broke? Building caught on fire? No balance to life, consumed with school completely. Teachers love them, because they succeed well short term- but long term they get into trouble. How successful and unsuccessful students differ1. Using time need to make a lot of decisions how to use time. going to class? Successful students plan on going to every class, and do so. Unsuccessful are the exact opposite. Most unsuccessful people go to class on a regular basis. going to class Is a necessary, but not suffiecient condition to be successful. Most unsuccessful people go to class. Unsuccessful students Spend as much time on class related activities, but dont use it as efficiently. They dont get much out of it. Successful students seem to know how to break up large diffuse difficult tasks into smaller, more manageable units. Successful students will organize a big workload, and break it down to smaller sections that are more manageable. Massed(cramming) versus spaced learning: spaced learning is much better than massed learning. Boils down to this; everytime you can make a mental connection between facts, that gives you another way to recall information. When doing spaced learning, that gives you more time to make different mental connections about the same material. Successful students tend to spread their study time out more, and use it more efficiently. Successful students are more organized and prioritize all their tasks. When in trouble, they drop out low priority items. Sometimes low priority items are non- academic items. Sometimes it is a academic item. Having radio on in background makes no difference on success of student, same trend with where and when you study. The one thing that did matter is that the successful students do only one thing at a time and work really hard on it. Get to place that makes sense to stop working on it. (end of a chapter). Unsuccess
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