KINE 1P93 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Mahatma Gandhi
DepartmentPhysical Education and Kinesiology
Course CodeKINE 1P93
ProfessorNancy R Francis
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KINE 1P93 Notes for ‘Embodiment’, ‘Lived Body’ and Origins of thinking about the body
We need privilege to be able to even consider our “body issues”
Dualism: thinking that the person is divided into mind and body
Monism: the person is a whole comprised of a myriad of aspects (not ‘parts’) as we are ONE.
1800s- Philosophical positions were developed because
•US starting to populate into cities
•Emphasis on materialism
•‘easier life’ enabled the body to be a point of focus (eg. Fitness, clothes, self-
Transcendentalism- “Godlike nature of the human spirit” “rugged individualism”
•Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau were ‘naturalists’, Ghandi, Martin Luther
King subscribed to his philosophies
Pragmatism- Currently thought of today as ‘take the best of each’ (eg. “I am pragmatist as a
Catholic; I respect the Pope but I use birth control.”) Not a purist.
1) determine difference between philosophies and
2) develop a practical way to deal with social unrest
•Eg. Charles Darwin (who wrote “Origin of the Species”)
Muscular Christianity- Physical strength + power = moral character
Sport= being a good Christian.
Body= Temple that houses the soul
Team games promote moral character and patriotism
Nature and religion are still linked
Muscular Christianity gave colleges/ universities visibility
Embodiment is defined as: “We perceive the world through our bodies; we are embodied
subjects, involved in existence” (Merleau Ponty, Phenomenology of Perception
•Our responses to our environment is enhanced by our uniqueness.
•We may perceive a simple statement or experience differently due to our gender, race,
class, skin colour, culture, intellect, personality, education, birth order, beliefs
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