LING 1F25 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Joint Attention, Universal Grammar, Object Permanence

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10 Aug 2016
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1. LING 1F25- Speech and Language Development
October 1
Communication
The process in which individuals exchange information and convey
ideas
oYou need a sender and a receiver: one to use code and the other
to decode
oSpeech and language are primary but paralinguistic skills are also
important (gestures, writing, hearing) (stress patterns, intonation,
rate of speech)
oNon linguistic cues: facial expressions, body language, eye contact
oParalinguistic skills communicate far more than speech itself
oSpeech and language are under the communication umbrella
oNeuroplasticity is significant for all of our senses
Speech
A mode of communication
oOral verbal
oSound and linguistic units
oInvolves the brain
oFrontal lobe has Broca’s area (responsible for speech and
expression)
oInvolvement of articulators, respiration and voicing
Language
Socially shared code
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oAgreed upon rules for code
oRules that govern sounds, words, sentences, meaning and using
oChild learning language has to have linguistic competence
Components existing within language: form, content, use *get definitions
from readings
Phonology
oDeals with systems of sounds
oIncludes linguistic elements used to control sounds
o Sound variations
Morphology
oWord formation
oMorpheme cannot be broken down into smaller meaning, holds
meaning,
oCan be word, prefix or suffix
Syntax
oWords put together to form a sentence
oWords must take a certain structure or formation in order to form a
proper sentence
Semantics
oDeals with word and its meaning
oFormed through experience and cognitive development
oUse of figurative speech
oOvergeneralization
Pragmatics
oRules of conversation and discourse
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