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Lecture 1

LING 1P92 Lecture 1: LING 1P92 LEC

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Department
Linguistics
Course
LING 1P92
Professor
Lynn Dempsey
Semester
Fall

Description
What is Language? Communicative • Direct it at someone • Purposeful behavior • Intentional • Allows us to exchange information & ideas • Displacement- higher level language function that only humans use Arbitrary • No resemblance between a word ( symbol) and its referent (what the word stands for) • Allows us to be more descriptive- allowing us to describe one object using multiple words • Can be confusing e.g -> bedroom vs. mushroom Structured • Pattern based on rules. • Rules determine sounds to make words, words unto sentences, and sentences into discourse. e.g -> Grammar, spelling, • Putting words in the right order Multilayered • Speech sounds • Words • Phrases • Sentences • Paragraphs • Language can always be broken down e.g -> A is a letter, but can be broken down to a sound Productive • Limited set of sounds can create unlimited set of words • Small set of words can be used to generate a limitless number of sentences • e.g-> The man killed the lion/ or the Evolutionary Language is always changing • • Changing more rapidly now due to pop culture, advertising technology, and science generating new words. • As we generated industries, new technologies, new activities new words are being introduced daily • e.g to help understand -> the cross breeding of dogs, coming up with names for new breeds is more prominent than years back • Borrowing words from other cultures • Combining words Multimodal • Oral • Not just oral, but can be in other forms such as sign language etc. Your ideas, your thoughts =SYMBOL Written, spoken, gestures REPAIR- automatically repeat but in the proper form What are the characteristics of language What are the components of language? • Language is system of symbols that we use to express thoughts, ideas, and feelings 3 components: Content Form • Phonology (Phono means sound) • Rules for how SOUNDS are put together • How we make speech sounds ( articulation) • English has 44 phonemes ( sounds) • Change the sound = change the meaning e.g -> S-un vs. F- un • e.g A is pronounced A, whereas J is pronounced as dj making it a letter instead of sound Rules for how sounds can be put together (Phonotactic rules) • • Can combine sp, but not sb, sx • CAR -> some people say KAR, some may say KA • Morphology • Rules or how words are put together/ constructed • Grammar at the single world level • MORPHEME: smallest unit of language that conveys meaning • Two types: Free and Bound • e.g-> Free- Organize, Bound- Organized • Boy= 1 morpheme • Boys= 2 morpheme • Bound morphemes • Derivational Inflectional • • This is a wug. Now there are two of them. There are two wug. • This is Niz. This is a shirt that belongs to Niz. It is Niz's shirts. • Syntax • Rules for how sentences are put together Use What is psycholinguistics ? How do we study language ? What are the main issues in psycholinguistics ? What is Language? Communicative • Direct it at someone • Purposeful behavior • Intentional • Allows us to exchange information & ideas • Displacement- higher level language function that only humans use Arbitrary • No resemblance between a word ( symbol) and its referent (what the word stands for) • Allows us to be more descriptive- allowing us to describe one object using multiple words • Can be confusing e.g -> bedroom vs. mushroom Structured • Pattern based on rules. • Rules determine sounds to make words, words unto sentences, and sentences into discourse. e.g - > Grammar, spelling, • Putting words in the right order Multilayered • Speech sounds • Words • Phrases • Sentences • Paragraphs • Language can always be broken down e.g -> A is a letter, but can be broken down to a sound Productive • Limited set of sounds can create unlimited set of words • Small set of words can be used to generate a limitless number of sentences • e.g-> The man killed the lion/ or the Evolutionary • Language is always changing • Changing more rapidly now due to pop culture, advertising technology, and science generating new words. • As we generated industries, new technologies, new activities new words are being introduced daily • e.g to help understand -> the cross breeding of dogs, coming up with names for new breeds is more prominent than years back • Borrowing words from other cultures • Combining words Multimodal • Oral • Not just oral, but can be in other forms such as sign language etc. Your ideas, your thoughts =SYMBOL Written, spoken, gestures REPAIR- automatically repeat but in the proper form What are the characteristics of language What are the components of language? • Language
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