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Lecture-October 1.docx

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Richard Welland

October 1, 2012 Breathing and Speech Production Physiology of Breathing Forces and movements of breathing:  Passive forces  Active forces  Movements of the rib cage wall  Movements of the diagram  Movements of the abdominal wall Forces:  Passive o No muscle are involved…no muscle contractions involved at all  Active o Muscles are involved…typical muscle contraction…changes in air pressure etc. o Pressure=the force divided by the area o Whatever you do to pressure you have to do the opposite to the area…. You decrease the area you increase the pressure Pressures:  Alveolar o Inside the lungs  Intra(pleura o Between visceral and thoracic (costal) pleurae  Abdominal o Inside the abdominal cavity  Transdiaphragmatic o Pressure difference across the diaphragm o The difference in pressure across the diaphragm = the pressure in the abdomen and the pressure in the PL Movements of the Rib cage wall:  Circumference of the rib cage wall increase on inhalation  Circumference of the rib cage wall decreases on exhalation  Possible because of two joints: o Costo-central Joints o Costo-transverse  Pump-Handle (the movement of an old water pump) o Vertical movements at front  Buckle-handle o Vertical movements at sides Forces and movement of Breathing:  Relative movements o Palv (pressure alveolar) influences by percentage contact RC (rib cage) & AB (abdomen) have with lungs Output Variables of Breathing:  Volume o Vocal folds must open in order to allow the air into the airway…when you inhale (the airway is open) you increase the volume that is inside the lungs o When you exhale you decrease the volume that is inside the lungs o Can be portioned into:  Lung volumes  Lung Capacities o Can measure lung volume with: o Wet Spirometer  A person would have a tube inserted into the mouth that connects to a jar or bell that’s turned upside and placed into the water.  You then measure by the bell ringing when the person breathes or when the lid on the jar moves up and down o Dry Spirometer o Computerized spirometer  Electric signals are used, o Pneumotachagraph  Taking air flow from the persons breathe and converting t into an electric signal which then gives you the volume being expelled  Tital Volume o The average volume of breathing that a human being will inhale or exhale o Every time the person inhales the curve goes up and exhalation the curve goes down  Pressure  Shape Static Lung Volumes and Capacities KEY TERMS:  The difference between the Resting Expiratory level and End-Inspiratory level is the total TIDAL VOLUME  Resting Expiratory level (REL) (bottom line on graph) o Tendency of lungs to collapse vs. tendency of thorax to expand o REL= end-expiratory level (EEL) is when you stop exhaling o REL= Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)  End-Inspiratory level o End-point of normal inhalation  Lung Volumes o Tidal Volume  Volume of air inhaled and exhaled during a breath cycle o Inspiratory Reserve Volume  Maximum volume of air that can be inhaled beyond peak of tidal inhalation  You are able to inhale more than your normal breath o Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)  Maximum volume of air that can be exhaled beyond the peak of tidal exhalation o Residual Volume (RV)  Volume of air remaining in the lungs at the end of maximum exhalation (always a particular volume of air that stays in the lungs after all the air you have breathed out) not always the same air molecules, they will be exchanged  While your alive you can never exhale your Residual Volume, until your dead LUNG CAPACITIES o Inspiratory Capac
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