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October22-The Larygneal Appartus Cont'd.docx

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Brock University
Richard Welland

October 22, 12 The Laryngeal Apparatus Cont’d Test #2: Read pages 28-68, 81-102 3 Main Cartilages: Arytenoid Cartilages  Location o Lamina of cricoid cartilage  Features o Paired tetrahedral cartilages  Base, apex, 3 surfaces o Muscular process (several muscles that are attached to the arytenoid cartilages) o Vocal process (vocal ligament attached to the vocal process which attaches to the vocal folds) Corniculate Cartilages  Location o Atop apexes of arytenoid cartilages  Features o Paired, horn-shaped, elastic cartilages o No known function in humans (probably something to do within the folds of the larynx) Cuneiform Cartilages  Location o Embedded within aryepiglottic folds o Just anterior and lateral to corniculate cartilages  Features o Paired, wedge-shaped, elastic cartilages o Provide support to aryepiglottic folds Epiglottis  Location o Just posterior to hyoid bone  Attachments to: o Thyroid cartilage via Thyroepiglottic ligament o Hyoid bone via hypoepiglottic ligament  Features o Leaf-like shape o Anterior surface attached to root of tongue via median and lateral glossoepiglottic ligaments  Valleculae (2 valleys or pits) o Between epiglottis and root of tongue o On either side of median glossoepigllottic fold o May help to prevent aspiration during swallowing Hyoid Bone  Location o At level of 3 cervical vertebra  Features o U-shaped o Not attached to any other bone in the body o Held in position by muscles and ligaments and attached to cartilages within the larynx and attached to muscles in the jaw and the tongue  Attached to: o Root to tongue (also supports root of tongue) o Supra- and infra-hyoid muscles  Attachments form “sling” with hyoid bone; so eventually it is able to move in backward, forward and side to side movements Laryngeal Joints Cricoarytenoid Joint  Saddle joint  Rocking motion (primary) (doesn’t glide or slide as much it is more of the rocking movement)  Gliding motion (limited)  Rotation motion  Primary Function: For vocal process adduction (bringing toward the mid line/abduction (moving away from the mid-line) Cricothyroid Joint  Pivot joint  Rotational motion through horizontal axis  Approximates thyroid and cricoid cartilages (from side to side; the horizontal axis)  That is our way of increasing vocal pitch SUMMARY: Unpaired cartilages:  Thyroid cartilage  Cricoid cartilage  Epiglottis Paired Cartilages:  Arytenoid Cartilages  Corniculate Cartilages  Cuneiform Cartilages 2 Ligaments:  Thyroepiglotic Ligament (point down)  Hypoepiglottic Ligament (arrow points up) allowing the ligament to bounce back up Other ligaments: Lateral Glossoepiglottic Median Glossoepiglottic Lateral Glossoepiglottic Ligament Ligament Ligament Ligaments attaching to the tongue Laryngeal Framework: Cavities, Vocal Folds, & Laryngeal Cavity:  Extends from: o Adit
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