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Lecture 7

LING 2P91 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Closure Phase, Vocal Tract, University Of Manchester

Course Code
Barbra Zupan

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-resonant consonants – resonated on both oral and nasal cavities but only exits
nasal cavity
-sound exiting nose is the nasal murmur
-velum is lowered during production resulting in a longer/larger cavity – formant freq
will be lower
-nasal formant – additional formant that occurs bc of having both nasal and oral
cavities involved in resonance
-very low in freq (large volume) – usually less than 250-300Hz
-most intense portion of nasal murmur
Nasal Murmur
-it’s the sound that’s produced when the VP port is open and the oral airstream is
-includes antiformants and a nasal formant
-antiformants caused by some air remaining trapped in oral cavity as rest goes to
nasal cavity
-antiformants have a dampening e'ect on harmonic freq within the bandwidth; so
will look weak on a spectrogram
-also end up with an additional formant
Nasal Consonants
-nasal formants are acoustically weak due to:
-antiresonances/antiformants frequency regions in which amplitude of
source is extremely
attenuated; opposite of formants; arise from areas in vocal tract that trap
energy instead of
letting it pass
-elongation of a resonant tract due to VP port; bc its travelling through both
-absorption of sound when we push sound through nasal cavity, hairs and
mucus absorbs
sounds and nasal wall
-lack of radiating capacity (the opening where sound comes from) b is
bigger space than m
-coming through small opening of nostrils vs large opening of mouth
Antiformant (DON’T HAVE ENERGY)
-Picture: white patch in between, Ex. 180 degrees out of phase when it completely
cancels out sound
-energy is not passed through the system e'ectively
-energy is absorbed within the system; opposite of a formant
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