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Lecture 1

LING 4P20 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Hearing Aid, Critical Thinking, Problem Solving

Course Code
Carolyn Windsor

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LING 4P20 Lecture 1
1. Diagnosis:dia – part
gnosis – to know (how far away from the norm they are?)
-for thorough understanding of the client’s abilities (how de!cit in one area a"ects
another area)
-we diagnose to get information; to pull disorder away from child so we can look at
the severity
-not just assigning a label or establishing a cause: looking at cognition, other
senses, social engagement
-can change overtime (so you look to see if there are improvements) due to missing
teeth etc
-di"erent contexts – clinic vs classroom; 1 person vs group (assess in dif contexts to
assure therapy works beyond the clinic)
-di"erent tasks – telling stories
2. Evaluation/Assessment
-process of arriving at a diagnosis, to determine:
-nature and extent of problem (articulation, stuttering or voice problem)
-baseline performance and set of goals
-functional communication ability (what a child does a test vs real life may be
importance for autistic kids and adults with dimensia
-progress and monitor change
-achieved via measurement of speech and long behavior
Importance of Measurement
-it’s important so you can prove to insurance companies that it’s e"ective; so you
can get into speci!c programs; so you can stay in certain programs
1. Evidence-based practice EBP (standardized tests)
-when to measure, what to measure, what is the most cost e"ective
treatment for the child
-SLPs must choose measurement tools/tests that are rigorous; evaluation
must be ongoing
For this to happen: Test the tests, Be savvy clinicians, Consider the best “!t”
with the client
2. Response to instruction RTI
-used mostly with special needs, done on Tier basis
(Tier 1 struggling child is identi!ed monitored and referred to SLP
Tier 2 they receive assessment and consultative model
Tier 3 speci!c goals and therapy is implemented
Tier 4 they are in a special speech program)
3. Dynamic assessment (typically do this as you go through the therapy program)
-evaluating how child may perform with assistance (trial therapy)
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-use Vygotskys zone of proximal development to see child can learn it if you
model something
-these are skills that may be emerging
-suggests a starting point for treatment
-factors that a clinician may vary during a dynamic assessment with a child
with LI: modeling, choice making (NEVER ASK YES/NO questions), prompting,
gestures, repetition, reduce linguistic loading, ask in a di"erent way
Scope of Measurement
-ICF: international classi!cation of functioning, disability and health
-encourages a broad scope of assessment; takes into account the environment
-shifts focus from cause to impact
-shifts battery from formal testing alone to observations, interviews, and informal
measures of functioning
-body, function and structure
-parts of the body and physical and psychological functions (capacity: can
they raise that hand;
performance: can you use that hand for speci!c functions)
-activities and participation (participation in daily activities and events that
you want to)
-contextual factors – barriers (what is stopping you from doing what you
want: funding?) and facilitators (personal; environmental)
Case Study: Jarrod
-body functions assessed
-articulation cannot be assessed bc he doesn’t have a range of sounds
-hearing function should be assessed even though there are no red @ags
-psychological functions – problem solving
-body structures assessed: palate, tongue, lips, ears; oral motor control- sequencing
(de!nitely look at this with him since he can’t sync sounds)
-does he look like he has a syndrome? Assess if yes
-activity and participation domains assessed (engaging in convo, learning, how he
interacts with others)
-environmental factors assessed (attitudes of others, services and policies,
geographical location, family support)
-personal factors assessed (temperament, self awareness, coping strategies)
Diagnosis: Is there a problem?
-speech is abnormal when it deviates so far from the speech of other people that is
calls attention to itself, interferes with communication, or causes the speaker or his
listeners to be distressed
-Di"erence: does speech call attention to itself? When and in what context?
-Disturbance: breakdown in message transmission
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