- Sex is biological -
- "Male" and "Female" Try not to use these unless you are talking gender.
- Gender is socially constructed
- Socially constructed = created, maintained, or changed by people.
- Capitism is socially constructed
- Therefore, gender refers to our ideas about women and men, boys and girls
- and how we
put those ideas into practice ** Key concept.
- Is "race" biological or social? Researchers difer in their views
- Ideas about race and work are undoubtedly socially-constructed
- **For our purposes both sex and race are socially construced
Using the Concepts of Gender and Race
1 - Gender and race are experienced at work and beyond.
2 - A woman manager may be seen as pushy and a male manager may be viewed
as persuasive - Gender andd race are performed at work and beyond
- Accessories (from earrings to trucks)
- Ways of speaking
- These all convey gendered and/or racialized meanings
- Gender and race are used to organize work and workers
- There may be a gendered division of labour **Key concept
- Work and tasks are divided based on gender
- Hunter - men, gathering - women. Although they were not unequal. More
egalitarian. - It then changed after time - think about the show Mad Men - gender
Work/Jobs are gendered by: *** Key concept
1 - Who does the work (predominatly woman or men) - numbers
2. The characteristics and expectations associated with the work (are the tasks
associated with men or woman?)
- Work may be feminized
- Work may be male-dominated or gendered masculine - This refers to the first
of the two
- Work may be racialized (associated with a particular race)
"Feminized work" can mean different things:
- Service work, proving service
- Providing care/care work - social service, even parts of the education sector
- Emotion work/service - cashier being told she is stupid and incomptent just
as to keep
taking it and smiling. - Providing sexual allure
- Sometimes, its a combination - a high end luxery retail work, tasked with
emotional work, and being attractive.
- Janitorial work is stilll feminized, for example, not because of the #s
does the work, but becasue of the associations/expectations.
- Although this is more done by men in today's society.
- Still feminized - not because of the numbers, but because of the
- Often also racialized. Men of color doing the work.
Gendered work may be unpaid work
- There is often gendered division of unpaid work in homes
- Is becoming more eqully shared but is still 2:1 women:men in Canada
- The work that needs to be done at home, gets divided, indoor work is mom,
- People use gendered ideas to organize that division of work
- "Double Shift" it gets at this idea that you worked for pay and that you
go home and
work a second shift that you do not get paid for it.
- The number of hours that we spend doing unpaid work is very high. Unpaid labour/work
- often but not only done in homes
- drive your child to soccer practice - extensive of the car giving work
done at home
- Sometimes in an office - lets organize a birthday party
- Unpaid internship
- Sometimes you work 9-5, and when 5pm comes the work is not done. Your set
ended but you have to stay t