Saints, Holy places, and Pilgrims & The Crusades LEC 8

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MARS 1F90: Lecture Outline
Lecture 8
1. Saints, holy places, and pilgrims
2. The medieval university
3. The Crusades
You will need to know the unfamiliar words and dates preceded by an asterisk!
1. Saints, holy places, and pilgrims [Europe's landscape was covered in holy places,
people would be going for constant pilgrimages to them; Holiest place was
Jerusalem. Holy places would contain relics of a saint]
a. Holy places as another feature of medieval Europe‟s physical & religious
b. The association with a saint or saints (e.g. *Santiago de Campostela in
Spain) -possibly where James died-
c. The purpose of visiting a holy site: seeking a special favour from the saint
i. Cure for illness
ii. As *penance for sins
d. Popularity of *pilgrimages in the Middle Ages [ pilgrimages brought in
e. The importance of Jerusalem, the holiest site of them all
f. Becoming a saint in the Middle Ages
i. 12th cent.: the introduction of *canonization
ii. The Church cannot make a saint, but only declares someone a saint
g. *Relics
i. The special powers of a saint‟s relics
ii. They were worthy of veneration
iii. If a body did not decompose …?
iv. Medieval piety‟s obsession with relics
v. What determined a holy site‟s importance in the hierarchy of
medieval holy places? ( how important the saint was religiously)
vi. A holy site as a source of revenue
vii. The „breaking-up‟ of a saint‟s remains [spread out the saints to
multiple shrines throughout Europe; wealthy people wanted to be
buried beside saints, so it made a competition]
2. The birth of the medieval university [students were considered part of the clergy
and couldn't be prosecuted for a crime, more educated people, before 12th cent
any higher education was reserved for monks; but after there was a demand for
people with education - instead of killing each other over land they went to court
therefore needing people trained in law. -]
a. The growing need for educated men to serve as administrators, urban
councillors, royal secretaries, diplomats, etc.
b. Higher education the exclusive domain of monastic schools before 1200
i. The principal aim was to educate monks
ii. Cathedral schools
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iii. The role of the clergy and the bishop
c. The earliest medieval universities after 1200: *Paris and *Bologna
d. By 1300 there were at least 20 universities in Europe
e. Characteristics of the early medieval universities [started as a kind of guild
in order to take care of its faculty and students; students required to wear
academic robes, rules about students behaviour.]
i. The University of Paris had no campus or permanent
buildings[theology was considered queen of the sciences]
ii. All of them began as corporations that aimed to safeguard the
commons interests of their members (students & faculty)
iii. The four faculties: arts, law, medicine, and theology
1. Latin the universal language of instruction
2. The degrees admission to law, medicine and theology
required an arts degree
iv. The increased demand for debating skills
1. A new method of learning: *Scholasticism [major debating
skill - aimed at reconciling religion with science]
a. It relied heavily on logical argument and debate
b. *Peter Abelard [wrote on scholasticism]
c. *Thomas Aquinas [wrote on scholasticism]
3. The Crusades [happened when Europe was finally recovering from the Germanic
invasions (high middle ages - urbanization - learning -cathedrals) crusades show
us to what extent that Europe is religious; killed Jews, Muslims and Christians
who were not the same branch. For 200 years no other political event shaped the
minds of people in the medieval ages like the crusades. As the wars continued
people became more confused for the reason.]
The general cause was because of what happened in the Byzantium Empire; Turks were
invading the Byzantium Empire. So they asked the pope for help against the Turks;
Emperor appeals to the pope and the huge church counsel - and tells of what will happen
to the holy places to the crowd and they shout Dues le volt]
a. A major religious and political movement that would have a profound and
lasting impact on the history of Europe and the relations between East and
b. Religious fanaticism
c. The Crusades and Europe between the 11th and 13th centuries
d. The first Crusades launched in a spirit of religious fervour, but replaced by
cynicism and confusion
e. The immediate cause (political)
i. 1071: Turkish forces defeat the Byzantine army
ii. The Byzantine emperor appeals for help
iii. The split between the Western and Eastern churches
iv. *1095: *Pope Urban II calls for a „holy war‟
v. “Deus le volt! Deus le volt!” (God wills it) - shouted by the crowd-
f. Other causes
i. Religious
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