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The Spread of the Reformation, the English Reformation the Reformation and Society, Catholic Reformation, & the Wars of Religion LEC 9

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Brock University
Medieval and Renaissance Studies
Andre Basson

1 MARS 1F90 Lecture 9 The Spread of the Reformation, the English Reformation the Reformation and Society, Catholic Reformation, & the Wars of Religion 1. The Reformation in Germany a. Germany as part of the Holy Roman Empire [created by Charlemagne, consisting of many semi independent states ruled by a prince] - Germany was part of it i. The HRE still consisted of a group of separate states ii. Europe’s largest country with the most inhabitants in 16th cent iii. The Holy Roman Emperor: not hereditary but elected position iv. By the seven most important or powerful Princes called the Prince Electors [they would elect one of their own, not someone who would be stronger than them, someone they could control (not a very powerful figure in the central government)mostly equal states some were protestant and some were catholic] --> therefore the lack of strong catholic government allowed it to spread. b. Charles V, the grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella (of Spain), becomes Holy Roman Emperor [a strong catholic] c. Charles’ involvement in military campaigns benefitted the Lutheran cause [little time to focus on the protestant cause; was given support in campaigns if he ignored the protestants] d. The Peace of Augsburg (1551) by younger brother wrote it & the principle of cuius regio eius religio [the religion of the ruler determines the religion of his subjects] which required that the faith of a ruler should automatically also be that of his subjects [ex: if Prince is Lutheran they are forced to become it or move to another state of their religion] e. The Peace of Augsburg and the end of the religious unity of Europe’s largest state [lost the religious unity because of Peace of Augsburg - Lutheran protestant or catholic] 2. The Reformation in England [Henry the 8th] a. Religious reform introduced from the top down [began with the king --> to the subjects] b. King Henry VIII as Defender of the Faith [strongly catholic given the title] c. Relations between Henry and the papacy soured after Henry separated from Catherine of Aragon to marry Anne Boleyn [tried to get the marriage annulled; ends up denied] 2 d. Henry declares himself the supreme authority in the spiritual affairs of England [head of church of England; but did not break with Catholicism; introduced reforms but tried to stayed close to being catholic] e. The English clergy officially recognize Henry as head of the English church in 1531 f. Henry does not break with traditional Catholicism, but introduces some radical reforms g. Protestantism in England under Edward VI (6th) h. England under Mary, the daughter of Catherine of Aragon i. Her support of Catholicism and marriage to Philip II of Spain [pro- catholic] ii. She has 300 Protestants executed and becomes known as Bloody Mary iii. England under Elizabeth I [skillful in trying to balance the religions; wanted to benefit the protestants but without hurting Catholics] iv. Elizabeth and her advisors seek a middle ground between Catholicism, Lutheranism, and Calvinism v. She wants to make England a Protestant country without antagonizing the Catholics unduly i. The wisdom of Elizabeth’s policy - the rest of Europe reassured Elizabeth that it was the right path. 3. Catholic reform [the counter reformation was a direct response to the reformation - launched by the catholic church as a direct consequence of the Lutheran reformation. Catholic reform was a movement within the church and try to reform the church, possible without the protestants a reform would of happened.] a. It is necessary to distinguish between the Counter Reformation and Catholic Reform b. Their general aim [both aimed to increase the commitment of Catholics to the church.] c. The Society of Jesus (Jesuit Order) - the Jesuits- SJ i. Founded in the 1530’s by Ignatius of Loyola [Spanish - catholic] He was a solider until he took an arrow to the knee; military background helps to understand his mindset. Within a yr 1500 members; spread out to tell people of religion, 'missionaries'- focused on self mastery and discipline (military background). ii. The Spiritual Exercises: absolute self-mastery through mental and emotional exercises iii. The overriding aim = submission to the authority of the church [discipline; unwavering in commitment to the religion. To ensure people would commit or recommit to the church - strongest of the counter reformation - like spiritual soldiers] d. Reform and the papacy i. Paul III’s commission (pope) [commission had to write a report on the abuses of the papacy, and the corruption in the church] ii. His reactionary reforms [going against the tide of reforms] 1. The Roman Inquisition [to find the heretics - does not adhere to true faith] 3 2. The Index of forbidden books [titles of books Catholics were not suppose to read] - burned them impossible to get a hold of. 3. The Council of Trent [called together a council --> need to know the name
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