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Lecture 4

PHIL 1F91 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Sextus Empiricus, Pyrrhonism, Scholasticism

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Brian Lightbody

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PHIL 1F91 Lecture 4 September 29, 2016
Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
Philosophy in the 17th century
The Historical Context
Descartes is considered the Father of modern philosophy
Contained within this phase are two notions:
1. Descartes is solely responsible for providing a new method for philosophical inquiry.
. Moder philosoph is soeho differet tha the sort of philosoph that ae efore.
We may divide pre-modern philosophy into four different groups. Consequently there were also
four differet ifluees o Desartes thikig.
1. The scholastics (Neo- Aristolianism);
2. The Skeptics (Montaigne, Vayer);
. The Ne “ietists Bao, Kepler, Coperius Galileo;
4. Protestantism (Luther and Calvin)
What is Scholastic Philosophy?
Roughly defined here, the scholastics attempted to synthesize the philosophy of the ancient
Greeks (but especially Aristotle) with the teaching of the Church.
We might understand this concern as Judaism vs. Romanism. That is, how do we reconcile faith
with reason?
Aristotle (384-322 B.C.)
Aristotle was a student of Plato and has come to define what metaphysics means
For Aristotle, metaphysics is the study of First philosophy that is, the study of the most
fundamental things, principles and causes in universe.
First Philosophy
For Aristotle the category of sustae is ore priordial tha all other as i hih e a
ategorize eig
Substance in brief, are those things which underlie change. Or, alternatively, they are the
subject of predicates but are not the predicates of anything else
Example a coffee cup [What makes a physical thing, a physical thing? (Extended)]
Quality, Quantity, Relation etc. These are categories of being too. However, as we have seen
these categories are dependent upon substance.
The roess of the Ti Hortos up aot exist on its own. It only exists IN a substance. As
a quality of an individual substance
Individual substances are called primary substances
Essential Attributes
Essential predicates or attributes are those properties which are always attached to the
In brief, substance are comprised of an essential form and matter.
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