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philosophy lecture 2

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Brian Lightbody

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Lecture2: PhilosophicalMethodology Tuesday,October 04, 2011 4:49PM - Sofar weknowthat philosophers tryto solvewhat Rauhutcalls ‘open questions.’ - Suchquestions areopenbecauseit is difficultto determinewhat an irrefutableanswerwouldlooklike. - Second,weknowthat philosophersinvestigate suchquestionsvia conceptualanalysis. Philosophersasdetectives - Wenowwantto knowif thereis amethodologythat philosophers useto answersuchquestions.Accordingto Rauhut,thereis indeeda methodology,whichconsists offourelements. 1. Clarification; 2. Hypothesize 3. Test 4. Judge 1. Clarification - Whenwespeakaboutclarification inphilosophy,wearespeakingabout conceptualanalysis.Inother words,wewantto knowwhatthe terms, definitionsandconceptsapersonis usingin anargumentandhow they arebeingused. - Example“Onthe moralandlegal status of abortion.”ByMaryAnne Warren(1973) - “Thefetusis notapersonandhencenotthe sortof entity to whichit is propertoascribefullmoral rights.” - Onlyapersoncan havemoralrights anda fetusevenif it is ahuman beingdoes notpossess those moralrights. - Justwhatmakesa personaperson? 1. Consciousness(ofobjects andeventsexternal and/orinternal to the being)andin particularthe capacity to feel pain. 2. Reasoning(thedevelopedcapacityto solvenewandrelatively complexproblems) 3. Self-motivatedactivity (activity which is relatively independentof either geneticor directexternal control.) 4. Thecapacity to communicate,by whatevermeans,messages ofan indefinitevarietyoftypes,that is, notjustwithan indefinitenumber ofpossiblecontents,buton indefinitelymanypossibletopics. 5. Thepresenceofself-concepts, andself-awareness,either individual orracial or both. orracial or both. -Anyentity,whichdoesnotfulfillat least oneof these conditions,is nota person. 2. Hypothesizing - Whenascientist conductsan experimentheor she doesso in orderto proveordisproveahypothesis. Inthe sameway,whenCLAIRIFYINGa conceptthephilosopher will create anhypothesis andthen TEST this hypothesisin animaginarysituation. Akrasia -Phenomenology Resolution -Contraryinclination -Defeatingintention Example,examinethefollowinghypothesis: ‘ Themindis nothingmorethan thebrain.’ - Wemightstart bycalcifyingwhat this statement means.Let ussay weput forwardastrongphysical reductionisthypothesis: “Wherethereis a mindthereis a working,humanbrain,andwherethereis noworking, humanbrainthereis no mind.” - Noticethat theremaybe other hypotheses explainingwhatthe mindm
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